Psychology: Psychosis, SZ
Terms in this set (53)
Why are half of homeless people believed to have SZ?
The deinstitutionalization movement
What does dementia praecox mean?
- By Emil Kraeplin
- Meant to describe SZ
- Emphasized symptoms close to dementia with early onset
- Thought to have chronic deteriorating course.
Who coined the term SZ?
What did Bleuler emphasize about schizophrenia?
It did not have a deteriorating course and it results in associative splitting of personality.
What are positive symptoms?
Bizarre additions to a person's behavior
What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
- Loose Associations
- Made up Words
- Heightened perceptions
- Inappropriate affect
"The problem is insects. My brother used to collect insects. He's now a man 5 foot 10 inches. You know, 10 is my favorite number; I also like to dance, draw, and watch TV."
Made up words
- "This desk is cramstile"
People may feel that their senses are being flooded by sights and sounds, making it impossible to attend to anything important
Most common are auditory, they generally involve a comment or accusation. They are either heard directly or overheard.
What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
- Poverty of speech
- Blunted Flat affect
- Loss of Motivation
- Psychomotor symptoms
What are negative symptoms?
Deficits or things that are lacking
Poverty of speech
- long lapses before responding and failure to answer.
- reduction of quantity and speed of speech
Blunted flat affect
- Avoidance of eye contact
- immobile and expressionless face
- lack of emotion when expressing emotional material
- Monotonous voice, low and difficult to hear
Loss of Motivation
- No energy, interests
- related to poor social skills
Awkward movements, repeated grimaces, odd gestures
Includes stupor, rigidity, posturing, and excitement
What are the 3 stages of Schizophrenia
Prodromal, Active, Residual
the start of deterioration (mild)
Symptoms become apparent
a return to prodromal levels
Type 1 Schizophrenia
Dominated by positive symptoms
- better adjustment prior to disorder, later onset, and greater likelihood of improvement
Type 2 Schizophrenia
Dominated by negative symptoms, may be tied to structural abnormalities in the brain
Type 1 Schizophrenia is linked to...
More biochemical abnormalities in the brain
How does genetics affect SZ ?
The closer the genetic relation, the greater the likelihood
Multifactorial Polygenic Model (MFP)
Large number of genes with small effect AND environment contribute to reaching a threshold
Which model corresponds to the Multifactorial Polygenic Model?
A perfect example of conclusions that should be drawn about the role of genetics and environment in SZ...
One's genetics can provide a strong predisposition towards SZ, but whether or not the disease is manifested may be determined by other factors such as home environment, the prenatal environment, dietary factors, and even other genetically determined characteristics.
What is the Dopamine Hypothesis
Neurons using dopamine fire too often, producing symptoms of SZ.
What supports the Dopamine hypothesis
- Effectiveness of antipsychotic medications
- Link with Parkinson's
- Amphetamine- Induced psychosis
What are limitations of dopamine hypothesis?
- New and more effective antipsychotic drugs also bind serotonin receptors
- Both dopamine and serotonin seem to be involved (& perhaps other neurotransmitters)
Biological Views of SZ: Brain Structure
- Enlarged Brain Ventricles
- Smaller temporal and Frontal lobes
- Abnormal blood flow to certain brain areas
Biological Views: Virus Exposure
Mothers of children with SZ were more often exposed to the influenza virus during pregnancy
Urban Stress hypothesis
Higher rates of SZ in higher population density neighborhoods
downward drift hypothesis of schizophrenia
Schizophrenia causes lower SES
Lower SES causes SZ
Sociocultural Views: Family Dysfunctioning
Families of those with diagnosis seem to differ from those without
Dysfunctional Families according to sociocultural views...
- Display more conflict
- Have greater difficulty communicating
- Parents are more critical of child and over involved
High Expressed Emotion
A family interaction style characterized by hostility, unnecessary criticism, or emotional overinvolvement
- relapse is 4X greater when patients live with such a family
- Muscle Tremor and rigidity
Bizarre movements of face, neck, tongue, and back
involuntary movements usually of the mouth, lips, tongue, legs, or body
-Can appear 1 yr later after taking antipsychotics
Benefits of New Antipsychotics
- Also target serotonin
- Cause fewer extrapyramidal side effects
- Reduce positive and negative symptoms
Examples of New Antipsychotics
Psychotherapies for SZ
Insight Therapy and Family Therapy
(both taken with medication)
Attempts to address family conflict, create more realistic expectations, and provide psycho-education about the disorder
People recovering from SZ usually...
- Need medication and psychotherapy
- Need help with daily stressors and responsibilities
- Need guidance in decision making
- Benefit from residential supervision
- Benefit from vocational counseling
What is provided in community treatment?
- Coordinated services
- Short term hospitalization
- partial hospitalization
- supervised residencies
Why do 40% to 60% people not receive treatment for SZ?
- Poor coordination services
- Shortage of services
Examples of the shortage of services
- People who have the "Not in my neighborhood mentality"