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Psych final exam study guide
Terms in this set (55)
You have been hired by a large public school system to construct a musical aptitude test. Describe how you would standardize your test and assess its reliability and validity. Explain why it might be more difficult to develop a valid musical aptitude test than a reliable one.
It is difficult to develop a valid musical aptitude test because most of the time, the measures of the aptitude are misunderstood and demands that are unrealistic, made on them. Validity should be seen as construct validity. The problem sources are in two groups. The first group uses composite validity criteria. This forms the assumption that they are not dimensional. The second one uses subject groups. The groups do not represent the distribution of the construct in whole. In order to maximize the ecological validity, composite measures must be used as the criteria for validity. When there are several constructs of a composite, the multidimensional is the best predictor. In that case, there are similar proportions and properties of the criterion and predictor.Validity is also harder to obtain as in most cases the people that have been studied do not represent the population in general. The music variables range of the sample studied is less or more restricted. The musical aptitude of the group is not a representation of the whole variance.This is because the success of the studies in the music can only be seen in individuals who and they are always selected in a particular way. Validation of a measure is never completed as when new information comes up it affects the test. In order to standardize the test, I will make sure that it meets its objective. This will be done by giving the test several times with the goal of acquiring the same results every time. Reliability is more attainable because the test does not have to be perfect and it is not easily affected by variances.
Heike's older brother suffers from major depressive disorder. Unfortunately, Heike has been incorrectly informed by her parents that there is a 40 percent chance she will also suffer from depression. Explain how the availability heuristic, framing, the confirmation bias, and belief perseverance might lead Heike to conclude that she will definitely develop the symptoms of major depressive disorder.
Heuristic: She is going to remember that she has a chance of getting depression and she will probably always remember it is 40%. She'll also connect the chance of getting depression to her brother, which makes that chance even more realistic. Confirmation Bias: If she has a bad day, a bad experience, or has feelings she doesn't exactly understand, she may automatically assume she has depression because she was told she has a chance of suffering from depression. Belief Perseverance: If she is told otherwise by a doctor or psychologist, she will have a hard time letting go of the 40% chance her parents had told her about. Framing: Since her own parents told her she has a chance of depression, and she knows her brother has a severe case, the fact she has a chance will also affect her. The way her parents told her is also framing, because they told her the chance she will get depression, instead of the 60% she has of not getting depression.
Give psychologists' definition of intelligence and discuss the arguments for general intelligence (g).
INTELLIGENCE-mental potential to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations GENERAL INTELLIGENCE(shortened to "g")-heart of all our intelligent behavior, from navigating the sea to excelling in school. Intelligence is a mental quality consisting of the potential to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. Charles Spearman proposed that we have one general intelligence (g) underlying all other specific mental abilities. He helped develop factor analysis, a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related abilities. L. L. Thurstone disagreed and identified seven different clusters of mental abilities. Yet a tendency remained for high scorers in one cluster to score high in other clusters. Studies indicate that g scores are most predictive in novel situations and do not much correlate with skills in evolutionarily familiar situations. General intelligence, also known as g factor, refers to the existence of a broad mental capacity that influences performance on cognitive ability measures
Describe the four abilities that make up emotional intelligence
Daniel Goleman, (2002), A psychologist who helped make the idea of EI popular, presented the concept of Emotional Intelligence as being encapsulated by four elements: Self Awareness, Self Management, Social Awareness, and Social Skills. The first element of Emotional Intelligence theory - Being self aware means that you understand you. - You understand what makes you tick and therefore, your strengths and weaknesses as a person, and a Leader. You can then start to understand why you feel, and what makes you feel. "Is this a good emotion, or should I feel a different way?" If you understand your emotions, you can identify their impact to you and those in your team. It is a path on the road to having humility, which is a much needed facet in Leadership. The second element of Goleman's Emotional Intelligence theory: self management - Through being in control of what you say and do, whilst rejecting the temptation to make rushed decisions, you can be in charge of your actions and therefore reducing the chance of compromising your values. Other aspects to nurture in this element are to show and actively apply conscientiousness, trustworthiness, Leading and adapting to change, complete drive to succeed and the initiative to think fast and act creatively and innovatively to solve problems. The third element of Emotional Intelligence Theory: Social awareness is the ability for a Leader to understand the emotions of the team members around them and to get a good comprehension of their emotional makeup. The ability to treat people according to these emotional reactions is vital. This area is linked to empathy: The ability to understand and see things in other peoples view points, expertise in building and retaining talent, valuing diversity and appreciating the organisational goals. In essence this part of emotional intelligence then, is about understanding and being truly in touch with the complete demands of the environment and acting to suit those conditions. The fifth and final element from Goleman's emotional intelligence theory, which links Leadership and Emotional Intelligence together: Leaders with good Social Skills are often very good communicators. Leaders who are good in this discipline are also good at conflict resolution and communicating the vision to team members, enlightening them and creating motivation and inspiration throughout the team. They are experts at getting their team to support them and also believe in their leadership. They set the example, for others to follow by demonstrating the acceptable behaviours and values.
Describe how and why racial and ethnic groups differ in mental ability scores.
As a group, American Whites have scored higher than their Hispanic and Black counterparts; this gap was wider a half-century ago than it is now. The evidence suggests that environmental differences are largely, perhaps entirely responsible for these group differences. genetics reveal that under the skin, races are remarkably alike. race is not neatly defined by a biological category. the intelligence test performance of today's better-fed, better-educated, and more test-prepared population exceeds that of the 1950's population--by a greater margin than the average intelligence test score of average white today exceeds that of the average black. when whites and blacks have or receive the same pertinent knowledge, they exhibit similar information-processing skill. school and culture matter: countries w a large wealth gap also have large test score gap. in different areas, different ethnic groups have experienced golden ages--periods of remarkable achievement.
Discuss whether intelligence tests are biased and discriminatory, and describe how stereotype threat affects test-takers' performance
Aptitude tests aim to predict how well a test-taker will perform in a given situation. So they are necessarily "biased" in the sense that they are sensitive to performance differences caused by cultural experience. By "inappropriately biased," psychologists mean that a test predicts less accurately for one group than for another. In this sense, most experts consider the major aptitude tests unbiased. Stereotype threat, a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype, affects performance on all kinds of tests.
Explain Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Give evidence that would lead you to support this statement and give two examples that are exceptions to Maslow's theory.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is used to study how humans partake in behavioral motivation intrinsically. Maslow used the terms "physiological," "safety," "belonging and love," "esteem," and "self-actualization" to describe the pattern through which human motivations generally move. This means that in order for motivation to occur at the next level, each level must be satisfied within the individual themselves. Furthermore, this theory is a key foundation in understanding how drive and motivation are correlated when discussing human behavior. Each of these individual levels contains a certain amount of internal sensation that must be met in order for an individual to complete their hierarchy.The goal of Maslow's Theory is to attain the fifth level or stage: self-actualization. Physiological need is a concept that was derived to explain and cultivate the foundation for motivation. This concept is the basic foundation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This term was coined to represent a similar premise as drive.
Physiological needs are considered the main physical requirements for human survival. This means that Physiological needs are universal human needs. Physiological needs are considered the first step in internal motivation according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This theory states that humans are compelled to fulfill these physiological needs first in order to pursue intrinsic satisfaction on a higher level. If these needs are not achieved, it leads to an increase in displeasure within an individual. In return, when individuals feel this increase in displeasure, the motivation to decrease these discrepancies increases. Physiological needs can be defined as both traits and a state. . Physiological needs include:
Once a person's physiological needs are relatively satisfied, their safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. In the absence of physical safety - due to war, natural disaster, family violence, childhood abuse, etc. - people may (re-)experience post-traumatic stress disorder or transgenerational trauma. In the absence of economic safety - due to an economic crisis and lack of work opportunities - these safety needs manifest themselves in ways such as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, disability accommodations, etc. This level is more likely to predominate in children as they generally have a greater need to feel safe. Safety and security needs are about keeping us safe from harm. These include shelter, job security, health, and safe environments. If a person does not feel safe in an environment, they will seek to find safety before they attempt to meet any higher level of survival, but the need for safety is not as important as basic physiological needs.
Safety and Security needs include:
Health and well-being
Safety needs against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts
After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third level of human needs are seen to be interpersonal and involves feelings of belongingness. This need is especially strong in childhood and it can override the need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents. Deficiencies within this level of Maslow's hierarchy - due to hospitalism, neglect, shunning, ostracism, etc. - can adversely affect the individual's ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships in general.
Social Belonging needs include:
According to Maslow, humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among social groups, regardless whether these groups are large or small. For example, some large social groups may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, and online communities. Some examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants. Humans need to love and be loved - both sexually and non-sexually - by others. Many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression in the absence of this love or belonging element. This need for belonging may overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure.
Esteem needs are ego needs or status needs. People develop a concern with getting recognition, status, importance, and respect from others. Most humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the need to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition. These activities give the person a sense of contribution or value. Low self-esteem or an inferiority complex may result from imbalances during this level in the hierarchy. People with low self-esteem often need respect from others; they may feel the need to seek fame or glory. However, fame or glory will not help the person to build their self-esteem until they accept who they are internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can distract the person from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem.
Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a "lower" version and a "higher" version. The "lower" version of esteem is the need for respect from others. This may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The "higher" version manifests itself as the need for self-respect. For example, the person may have a need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence, and freedom. This "higher" version takes guidelines, the "hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated". This means that esteem and the subsequent levels are not strictly separated; instead, the levels are closely related.
"What a man can be, he must be.":91 This quotation forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need refers to what a person's full potential is and the realization of that potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.:92 Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically. For example, one individual may have a strong desire to become an ideal parent. In another, the desire may be expressed athletically. For others, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or inventions.:93 As previously mentioned, Maslow believed that to understand this level of need, the person must not only achieve the previous needs but master them. Self-actualization can often be described as a value-based system when discussing its role in motivation. Since all levels of Maslow's hierarchy must have been met in order to acquire this level, seeking to fulfill this form of satisfaction can be defined as an explicit motive. An explicit motive can be defined as a reward-based system that is used to intrinsically pursue certain values or goals. Individuals who are motivated to pursue this level are seeking and understanding how their sense of self-partakes within their human behavior. Self-actualization can include:
Pursuing a goal
When Julie and her boyfriend Jack watch frightening horror movies together, they often experience explosive feelings of passionate affection for each other. Use your understanding of the physiology of emotion and the spillover effect to explain why horror movies could fuel their romantic feelings.
When watching a horror movies, our body willl release an adrenaline which will increase the rate of our heart beat.When we experience this next to someone that we like, our mind could interpret it as sexual attraction towards that person, which will enchance the romantic feelings that both of them felt.
Discuss the evidence that points to our human need to belong.
Our need to affiliate or belong—to feel connected and identified with others—had survival value for our ancestors' chances, which may explain why humans in every society live in groups. Societies everywhere control behavior with the threat of ostracism—excluding or shunning others. When socially excluded, people may engage in self-defeating behaviors (performing below their ability) or in antisocial behaviors.
Identify the three parts of an emotion, and discuss the theories that help us to understand our emotions.
Emotion is a whole body response involving bodily arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience
James-Lange theory states that emotional feelings follow our body's response to the emotion arousing stimuli
Cannan-Bard theory states that our body responds to emotion at the same time that we perience that emotion
Two-factor theory states that emotions involve physical arousal which is given a cognitive label.
Describe how facial expressions influence our feelings (explain the facial feedback hypothesis).
The facial feedback hypothesis states that facial movement can influence emotional experience. For example, an individual who is forced to smile during a social event will actually come to find the event more of an enjoyable experience. The facial-feedback hypothesis states that the contractions of the facial muscles may not only communicate what a person feels to others but also to the person him- or herself. In other words, facial expressions are believed to have a direct influence on the experience of affect. This hypothesis goes back to Charles Darwin, who wrote that the expression of an emotion intensifies it, whereas its repression softens it. A second origin of the facial-feedback hypothesis is William James's theory of emotion, which states that the bodily changes follow the perception of an exciting fact and that the feeling of these bodily changes is the emotion.
Describe two continuing sources of stress at this time in your life. For each source of stress, propose a specific problem-focused or a specific emotion-focused coping strategy that is likely to effectively reduce your stress.
1.) overload of work from all my classes. With a problem-focused coping (attempting to reduce stress directly-by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor) I would begin on all of my work early so that I don't get overwhelmed when everything is due.
2.) Finals week. With an emotion-focused coping method ( attempting to reduce stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to our stress reaction) I would probably wait last minute to study or not study at all in order to avoid the stress of it all OR I would conduct a study group in order to ensure that I know all of the information for finals.
Describe how someone with an external locus of control approaches a specific stressful situation. Identify how someone with an internal locus of control approaches a specific stressful situation. What are the consequences of these two different approaches for the two individuals described?
The extent to which people believe they have power over events in their lives. A person with an internal locus of control believes that he or she can influence events and their outcomes, while someone with an external locus of control blames outside forces for everything. If two people have a job interview, the person with an internal locus of control may feel that whatever comes of that job interview is what they deserved. If they get the job, they'll feel as if they deserved it; they worked hard for it, did well in the interview, and were rewarded for their efforts. And if they do not get it, they'll feel as though they didn't work hard enough and therefore fairly did not receive the job. Those with an external locus of control, however, may think they have no control over the results of the interview. If they got the job, they got it because that's just the way it happened. Same if they didn't get the job. It's all a game of chance for those with external loci of control.
Things like repeated abuse or assault may influence the formation of an external locus of control. Being provided options and shiz at a young age may have created an internal locus of control.
Three Specific Outcomes: Those with more internal locus of control exhibit less obesity, lower blood pressure, and less distress later in life.
Internal's consequences: achieved more in school and work, acted more independently, enjoyed better health, and felt less depressed
Describe the ways in which people manage or cope with stress.
Problem-focused coping: attempting to reduce stress directly- by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
Emotion-focused coping: attempting to reduce stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to our stress reaction.
Some people manage stress with aerobic exercise, a relaxation exercise or treatment, mindfulness meditation (a reflective practice in which people attend to current experiences in a nonjudgmental and accepting manner), faith and religion.
How does the body respond to stress?
Hans Selye proposed a general three-phase general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
-Alarm(Fight or flight)
-resistance(resists and compensates as body tries to get parasympathetic nervous system back to normal)
-exhaustion(if stressors continue body because exhausted and prone to disease and death)
People may react to stress by withdrawing, turning to alcohol, or becoming emotionally insensitive (more common in men) or by showing a tend-and-befriend response (more common in women), such as when helping others after natural disasters.
When the body is stressed, muscles tense up. Muscle tension is almost a reflex reaction to stress — the body's way of guarding against injury and pain.
With sudden onset stress, the muscles tense up all at once, and then release their tension when the stress passes. Chronic stress causes the muscles in the body to be in a more or less constant state of guardedness. When muscles are taut and tense for long periods of time, this may trigger other reactions of the body and even promote stress-related disorders. For example, both tension-type headache and migraine headache are associated with chronic muscle tension in the area of the shoulders, neck and head.
While walking through a busy city park, Mr. Cruz experiences sharp chest pains that indicate to him the onset of a heart attack. Describe how bystander effect would influence whether Mr. Cruz would receive help from others. Explain the three factors that would reduce the bystander effect.
He needs to be very vocal about his heart attack so people around him can understand what's going on.
He should try to draw as much attention to himself as possible.
Should catch the attention of an individual and makes it clear he's in distress. Doing this will cause the individual to realize they're the one that needs to help him. If one person starts paying attention to him and reacting, other people will conform and start reacting as well.
He needs to do this because people won't call 911 because they'll assume someone else did. Also, they would probably ignore him because that's what everyone else is doing.
Explain how the Fundamental Attribution Error relates with how we explain other people's behavior as compared to our own.
When it comes to other people, we tend to attribute causes to internal factors such as personality characteristics and ignore or minimize external variables. This phenomenon tends to be very widespread, particularly among individualistic cultures.
Psychologists refer to this tendency as the fundamental attribution error; even though situational variables are very likely present, we automatically attribute the cause to internal characteristics.
The fundamental attribution error explains why people often blame other people for things over which they usually have no control. The term blaming the victim is often used by social psychologists to describe a phenomenon in which people blame innocent victims of crimes for their misfortune.
In such cases, people may accuse the victim of failing to protect themselves from the event by behaving in a certain manner or not taking specific precautionary steps to avoid or prevent the event.
Examples of this include accusing rape victims, domestic violence survivors and kidnap victims of behaving in a manner that somehow provoked their attackers. Researchers suggest that hindsight bias causes people to mistakenly believe that victims should have been able to predict future events and therefore take steps to avoid them.
Explain how experiments on conformity and obedience reveal the power of social influence.
Asch's conformity studies demonstrated that under certain conditions people will adopt a group's judgment even when it is clearly incorrect. We may conform either to gain social approval (normative social influence) or because we welcome the information that others provide (informational social influence). In Milgram's famous experiments, people torn between obeying an experimenter and responding to another's pleas to stop the apparent shocks usually chose to obey orders. People most often obeyed when the person giving orders was nearby and was perceived as a legitimate authority figure; when the person giving orders was supported by a prestigious institution; when the victim was depersonalized or at a distance; and when no other person modeled defiance by disobeying.
Describe how the presence of others influences our actions, via social facilitation, social loafing, or deindividuation.
Social facilitation experiments reveal that the presence of either observers or co-actors can arouse individuals, boosting their performance on easy tasks but hindering it on difficult ones. When people pool their efforts toward a group goal, social loafing may occur as individuals free-ride on others' efforts. Deindividualization- becoming less self-aware and self-restrained in a group situation- may happen when people are both aroused and made to feel anonymous. Social facilitation: increased arousal leads to stronger performance in the presence of others; accelerating from a traffic signal. Social loafing: tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable; rope pulling. Deindividuation: loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity; riots.
Describe the role the Internet plays in group polarization.
Group polarization can be bad enough in real life. As Harvard Law Professor Cass Sunstein shrewdly observed in the late nineties, however, the Internet and social media have the propensity to lead to an exaggeration of this phenomenon because there is a greater propensity for politically and socially like-minded people to form online groups in which discussion and deliberation take place. Diverse groups are less likely to be affected by processes that lead to group polarization presumably because what I called "the initial condition" this past Monday fails to obtain, so no particular outcome is considered in-group desirable. But when a majority of people, or a few powerful group members, have similar agendas, the initial condition is bound to arise and psychological processes then move people to a more extreme point of view. Group polarization: enhancement of a groups attitudes through discussion within the group; if members of a group are like-minded, discussion strengthens the prevailing opinion. Groupthink: mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives; opposing opinions are suppressed or self-censored.
Identify the three parts of prejudice, and describe how prejudice has changed over time.
Prejudice: an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude to a group or its members. Three components: Beliefs- stereotype: A generalized (usually inaccurate) belief about a group of people. Emotions- hostility, envy, fear, etc. Actions- Discrimination: unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members. In-group = "us" - in-group bias, Out -group = "them", Social inequalities- stereotypes rationalize inequalities, emotional scapegoating- offers a target for ones anger. Prejudice is an unjustifiable, usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice's three components are beliefs (often stereotypes), emotions, and predispositions to action (discrimination). Overt prejudice in North America has decreased over time, but implicit prejudice—an automatic, unthinking attitude—continues. The social roots of prejudice include social inequalities and divisions. Higher-status groups often justify their privileged position with the just-world phenomenon. We tend to favor our own group (ingroup bias) as we divide ourselves into "us" (the ingroup) and "them" (the outgroup). Prejudice can also be a tool for protecting our emotional well-being, as when we focus our anger by blaming events on a scapegoat
Explain why we befriend or fall in love with some people but not others.
Proximity (geographical nearness) increases liking, in part because of the mere exposure effect—exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of those stimuli. Physical attractiveness increases social opportunities and improves the way we are perceived. Similarity of attitudes and interests greatly increases liking, especially as relationships develop. We also like those who like us.Discuss biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors that may trigger aggressive behavior.
Describe Freud's view of personality.
Sigmund Freud's treatment of emotional disorders led him to believe that they spring from unconscious dynamics, which he sought to analyze through free associations and dreams. He referred to his theory and techniques as psychoanalysis. He saw personality as composed of pleasure-seeking psychic impulses (the id), a reality-oriented executive (the ego), and an internalized set of ideals (the superego).
Psychologists consider personality to be an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
In his private practice, Freud found that nervous disorders often made no neurological sense. Piecing together his patients' accounts of their lives, he concluded that their disorders had psycho- logical causes. His effort to understand these causes led to his "discovery" of the unconscious.
Initially, he thought hypnosis might unlock the door to the unconscious. However, recognizing patients' uneven capacity for hypnosis, Freud turned to free association, which he believed pro- duced a chain of thoughts in the patient's unconscious. He called the process (as well as his theory of personality) psychoanalysis.
Freud believed the mind is mostly hidden. Our conscious experience is like the part of the iceberg that floats above the surface. Below the surface is the much larger unconscious, which contains thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are largely unaware. Some of these thoughts we store temporarily in a preconscious area from which we can retrieve them into conscious awareness. Frued blieved that personality results from conflict arising from the interation amond the mind's three systems: the id (pleasure-seeking impulses), ego (reality-oriented executive), and superego (internalized set of ideals, or conscience.
Identify the developmental stages proposed by Freud.How do our expectations, contexts, motivations and emotions influence our perceptions?
Seeing is believing, and believing in seeing.
Expectations, assumptions, and experiences give us a perceptual set. A perceptual set is a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
Once we form the wrong idea about reality it becomes very difficult to see the truth.
Our perceptual sets are determined through experiences. Our experiences help us organize and interpret unfamiliar information.
The surrounding context also helps us with our perceptions
Emotions, motives, and culture also influence our perceptions.
If a referee is told that a basketball team has been overly aggressive in past games, they will call more fouls. This affected their emotions
If people are rewarded for perceiving ambiguous images in one way or another to view them to their benefit.
He believed children pass through five psychosexual stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital). Unresolved conflicts at any stage can leave a person's pleasure-seeking impulses fixated (stalled) at that stage. (look at chart in book).
According to a number of distinguished psychologists, a major purpose of the defense mechanisms described by Freud is the protection of self-esteem. Give an example of how repression, reaction formation, projection, rationalization, displacement, and denial could each be used to protect or even enhance a positive self-image.
1. Repression is a self-defense mechanism that revolves around hiding or repressing traumatic memories. For example if someone suffered abuse as a child, they will repress the memory of that, but have a hard time forming relationships. It a measure used to protect self-image because it creates an imaginary shield around the person and protects them from the thought of abuse
2. Displacement is a self-defense mechanism that focuses on shifting aggressive or sexual impulses to something less intimidating. For example if you are feeling angry you may kick a book bag or trash can. It is used to enhance self-image because you are deflecting any negative thoughts away
3. Denial is the refusal to believe in something. For example, If you lose a friend in a car crash, you may suffer denial and say they are alright and unaffected. Denial protects self-image similarly to Repression by shielding yourself off from outside factors
4. Reaction formation is the expression of impulses that are the opposite of what we truly feel. For example if we are angry at someone we may speak in a sarcastic and exaggerated tone. This enhances self- image by allowing one to vent off any feelings or attitudes.
Critique Freud's psychoanalytic theory—which ideas were accepted and which ones are generally rejected today?
Freud's early followers, the neo-Freudians, accepted many of his ideas. They differed in placing more emphasis on the conscious mind and in stressing social motives more than sex or aggression. Most contemporary psychodynamic theorists and therapists reject Freud's emphasis on sexual motivation. They stress, with support from modern research findings, the view that much of our mental life is unconscious, and they believe that our childhood experiences influence our adult personality and attachment patterns. Many also believe that our species' shared evolutionary history shaped some universal predispositions.
Describe how humanistic psychologists viewed personality, and explain their goal in studying personality.
The humanistic psychologists' view of personality focused on the potential for healthy personal growth and people's striving for self-determination and self-realization. Abraham Maslow proposed that human motivations form a hierarchy of needs; if basic needs are fulfilled, people will strive toward self-actualization and self-transcendence. Carl Rogers believed that the ingredients of a growth-promoting environment are genuineness, acceptance (including unconditional positive regard), and empathy. Self-concept was a central feature of personality for both Maslow and Rogers.
Explain how psychologists use traits to describe personality (with emphasis on the Big-5 theory)
Trait theorists see personality as a stable and enduring pattern of behavior. They describe our differences rather than trying to explain them. Using factor analysis, they identify clusters of behavior tendencies that occur together. Genetic predispositions influence many traits. The Big Five personality factors—conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion (CANOE)—currently offer the clearest picture of personality. These factors are stable and appear to be found in all cultures
Discuss each of the following questions that theorists have addressed in research pertaining to the Big Five personality traits. How stable are these traits? Do we inherit these traits? Do these traits reflect differing brain structures or functions? Do the Big Five traits predict our actual behavior?
Albert Bandura views the person-environment interaction as reciprocal determinism. "Behavior, internal personal factors, and environmental influences," he said, "all operate as interlocking determinants of each other." Discuss three ways in which individuals and the environment interact. Explain how genes and environment can interact to influence traits and personality, and discuss one study supporting this interaction.
Behavior Modification (1925 - present).
Bandura views the person-environment interaction as reciprocal determinism. "Behavior, internal personal factors, and environmental influences," he said, "all operate as interlocking determinants of each other." For example, children's TV-viewing habits (past behavior) influence their viewing preferences (internal factor), which influence how television (environmental factor) affects their current behavior. The influences are mutual.
Discuss how we draw the line between normal behavior and psychological disorder.
Psychological disorders are deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions. The definition of deviant vareis with context, culture, and time, For example, some children who ight have been judged rambunctious a few decades ago now are being diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
A newspaper editorialist argues that the use of the DSM-5 diagnostic labels is destructively antidemocratic, because it enables an elite groups of mental health professionals to subtly control the values and lifestyles of the rest of society. First give reasons supporting this argument, then defend the continued use of diagnostic labels.
The DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition) was put out by the American Psychiatric Association as a system of classification of psychological disorders Supporting the Argument: ● Some believe that the DSM-IV casts too wide of a net and could describe almost any behavior as a symptom of one or more disorder. ● The first edition DSM classified 60 conditions, the DSM-IV now covers 400, making the number of adults who meet the criteria of at least one psychiatric disorder up to 30% (results from one survey). ● In order for the classification system to even work the DSM-IV must be developed and understood in a specific way so it is universally applicable by diagnosticians, giving a general description of the disorder. This may mean that someone with a psychiatric disorder may not fit the exact criteria and may be misdiagnosed if the physician does not make an appropriate assessment of their symptoms/conditions. Against the Argument: ● Diagnostic classification describes the disorder and makes it recognizable to diagnosticians as well as predicting the future course of the disorder and suggesting appropriate treatment methods. ● If one is diagnosed they will have treatments available to them that will subdue and prevent symptoms of their disorder. ● The DSM-IV allows research to be conducted on the different disorders, this will lead to a stronger understanding and will further the research on treatments. ● Many find this classification system helpful, most North American health insurance companies require a DSM-IV diagnosis
Describe how generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and phobias differ, and explain how the anxiety disorders differ from the ordinary worries and fears we all experience.
Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress and can be beneficial in some situations. It can alert us to dangers and help us prepare and pay attention. Anxiety disorders differ from normal feelings of nervousness or anxiousness, and involve excessive fear or anxiety. Anxiety disorders are the most common of mental disorders and affect nearly 30 percent of adults at some point in their lives. . But anxiety disorders are treatable and a number of effective treatments are available. Treatment helps most people lead normal productive lives. Anxiety refers to anticipation of a future concern and is more associated with muscle tension and avoidance behavior.
Fear is an emotional response to an immediate threat and is more associated with a fight or flight reaction - either staying to fight or leaving to escape danger.
Anxiety disorders can cause people into try to avoid situations that trigger or worsen their symptoms. Job performance, school work and personal relationships can be affected.
In general, for a person to be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, the fear or anxiety must:
Be out of proportion to the situation or age inappropriate
Hinder your ability to function normally
There are several types of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, specific phobias, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder.
Anxious feelings and behaviors are classified as an anxiety disorder only when they form a pattern of distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
People with generalized anxiety disorder feel persistently and uncontrollably tense and apprehensive, for no apparent reason.
In the more extreme panic disorder, anxiety escalates into periodic episodes of intense dread.
Those with a phobia may be irrationally afraid of a specific object, activity, or situation.
Two other disorders (OCD and PTSD) involve anxiety but are classified separately from the anxiety disorders.
What is OCD?
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder in which time people have recurring, unwanted thoughts, ideas or sensations (obsessions) that make them feel driven to do something repetitively (compulsions). The repetitive behaviors, such as hand washing, checking on things or cleaning, can significantly interfere with a person's daily activities and social interactions.
Many people have focused thoughts or repeated behaviors. But these do not disrupt daily life and may add structure or make tasks easier. For people with OCD, thoughts are persistent and unwanted routines and behaviors are rigid and not doing them causes great distress. Many people with OCD know or suspect their obsessions are not true; others may think they could be true (known as poor insight). Even if they know their obsessions are not true, people with OCD have a hard time keeping their focus off the obsessions or stopping the compulsive actions.
A diagnosis of OCD requires the presence of obsession and/or compulsions that are time-consuming (more than one hour a day), cause major distress, and impair work, social or other important function. About 1.2 percent of Americans have OCD and among adults slightly more women than man are affected. OCD often begins in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood; the average age symptoms appear is 19 years old.
What is PTSD?
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, a terrorist act, war/combat, rape or other violent personal assault.
PTSD has been known by many names in the past, such as "shell shock" during the years of World War I and "combat fatigue" after World War II. But PTSD does not just happen to combat veterans. PTSD can occur in all people, in people of any ethnicity, nationality or culture, and any age. PTSD affects approximately 3.5 percent of U.S. adults, and an estimated one in 11 people will be diagnosed PTSD in their lifetime. Women are twice as likely as men to have PTSD.
People with PTSD have intense, disturbing thoughts and feelings related to their experience that last long after the traumatic event has ended. They may relive the event through flashbacks or nightmares; they may feel sadness, fear or anger; and they may feel detached or estranged from other people. People with PTSD may avoid situations or people that remind them of the traumatic event, and they may have strong negative reactions to something as ordinary as a loud noise or an accidental touch.
A diagnosis of PTSD requires exposure to an upsetting traumatic event. However, exposure could be indirect rather than first hand. For example, PTSD could occur in an individual learning about the violent death of a close family. It can also occur as a result of repeated exposure to horrible details of trauma such as police officers exposed to details of child abuse cases.
Describe how conditioning, cognition, and biology contribute to the feelings and thoughts that mark anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD.
The learning perspective views anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD as products of
- fear conditioning,
- stimulus generalization,
- fearful-behavior reinforcement, and
- observational learning of others' fears and cognitions (interpretations, irrational beliefs, and hypervigilance).
The biological perspective:
- considers the role that fears of life-threatening animals, objects, or situations played in natural selection and evolution;
- genetic predispositions for high levels of emotional reactivity and neurotransmitter production; and
- abnormal responses in the brain's fear circuits.
Describe and give examples of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
People diagnosed with schizophrenia usually experience a combination of positive (i.e. hallucinations, delusions, racing thoughts), negative (i.e. apathy, lack of emotion, poor or nonexistant social functioning), and cognitive (disorganized thoughts, difficulty concentrating and/or following instructions, difficulty ...
Identify the brain abnormalities that are associated with schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is associated with changes in the structure and functioning of a number of key brain systems, including prefrontal and medial temporal lobe regions involved in working memory and declarative memory, respectively. Imaging techniques provide an unparalleled window into these changes, allowing repeated assessments across pre- and post-onset stages of the disorder and in relation to critical periods of brain development. Here we review recent directions in structural and functional neuroimaging research on schizophrenia. The view emerging from this work is that schizophrenia is fundamentally a disorder of disrupted neural connectivity, the sources of which appear to be genetic and environmental risk factors influencing brain development both prenatally and during adolescence.
Describe substance use disorders, and explain the roles that tolerance, withdrawal, and addiction play in these disorders.
Those with a substance use disorder may exhibit impaired control, social disruption, risky behavior, and the physical effects of tolerance and withdrawal. Psychoactive drugs alter perceptions and moods. They may produce tolerance- requiring larger doses to achieve the desired effect- and withdrawal- significant discomfort accompanying attempts to quit. Continued use may lead to addiction, which is the compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors (such as gambling) despite known adverse consequences.
Define depressants, and describe their effects.
Depressants, such as alcohol, barbiturates, and the opiates, dampen neural activity and slow body functions. Alcohol tends to disinhibit, increasing the likelihood that we will act on our impulses, whether harmful or helpful. It also impairs judgment, disrupts memory processes by suppressing REM sleep, and reduces self-awareness and self-control. User expectations strongly influence alcohol's behavioral effects.
Define stimulants, and describe their effects.
Stimulants—including caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, the amphetamines, methamphetamine, and Ecstasy—excite neural activity and speed up body functions, triggering energy and mood changes. All are highly addictive. Nicotine's effects make smoking a difficult habit to kick, yet the percentage of Americans who smoke has been dramatically decreasing. Cocaine gives users a fast high, followed within an hour by a crash. Its risks include cardiovascular stress and suspiciousness. Use of methamphetamines may permanently reduce dopamine production. Ecstasy (MDMA) is a combined stimulant and mild hallucinogen that produces euphoria and feelings of intimacy. Its users risk immune system suppression, permanent damage to mood and memory, and (if taken during physical activity) dehydration and escalating body temperatures.
Define hallucinogens, and describe their effects.
Hallucinogens—such as LSD and marijuana—distort perceptions and evoke hallucinations—sensory images in the absence of sensory input. The user's mood and expectations influence the effects of LSD, but common experiences are hallucinations and emotions varying from euphoria to panic. Marijuana's main ingredient, THC, may trigger feelings of disinhibition, euphoria, relaxation, relief from pain, and intense sensitivity to sensory stimuli. It may also increase feelings of depression or anxiety, impair motor coordination and reaction time, disrupt memory formation, and damage lung tissue (because of the inhaled smoke).
Discuss the biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors that help explain why some people abuse mind-altering drugs
Some people may be biologically vulnerable to particular drugs, such as alcohol. Psychological factors (such as stress, depression, and hopelessness) and social factors (such as peer pressure) combine to lead many people to experiment with—and sometimes become addicted to—drugs. Cultural and ethnic groups have differing rates of drug use. Each type of influence—biological, psychological, and social-cultural—offers a possible path for drug misuse prevention and treatment programs.
Explain how major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder differ.
Bipolar disorder is easily confused with depression because it can include depressive episodes. The main difference between the two is that depression is unipolar, meaning that there is no "up" period, but bipolar disorder includes symptoms of mania.
Discuss how the biological and social-cognitive perspectives can help us understand major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder
The biological perspective on depressive disorders and bipolar disorder focuses on genetic predispositions and on abnormalities in brain structures and function (including those found in neurotransmitter systems).
The social-cognitive perspective views depression as an ongoing cycle of stressful experiences (interpreted through negative beliefs, attributions, and memories) leading to negative moods and actions and fueling new stressful experiences.
Describe the three major eating disorders, and discuss how biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences make people more vulnerable to them.
The three main eating disorders are bulimia, anorexia, and binge-eating disorder. Biological factors include a person's serotonin and estrogen levels. The lower the levels, the higher risk for a disorder. Psychological influences could can stem from environmental influences, like the family. Also, the person may have low self esteem, be perfectionists, worry about failure, and care about what others think of them. Social-cultural influences can stem from the cultural standards that is expected of a certain gender. Western cultures emphasize thinner women while impoverished cultures emphasize plumpness. Also, the media and social interactions can shape how we view our bodies.
Identify the characteristics that are typical of personality disorders in general, and describe the biological and psychological factors that are associated with antisocial personality disorder
Discuss the goals and techniques of psychoanalysis, and describe how they have been adapted in psychodynamic therapy.
Through psychoanalysts, Sigmund Freud tried to get people self insight and relief from their disorders by printing anxiety Laden feelings and thoughts into conscious awareness. Psycho analytic techniques included using free association and interpretation instances of resistance and transference. Differs from it in many ways, including the lack of belief in id, ego, and superago. This contemporary therapy briefer, less expensive, and most focus on helping the client find relief from current symptoms. Psychodynamic therapist helped client understand have a past relationships create themes that may be acted out the present relationship.
Identify the basic themes of humanistic therapy, and describe the goals and techniques of Rogers' person-centered approach
both psycho analytic and humanistic therapists are insight therapies they tend to improve functioning increasing clients awareness of motives and defenses. humanistic therapy goals have include helping clients grow in self awareness and self acceptance; promoting personal growth rather then curing illness; helping clients take responsibilities for their own growth; focusing on conscious thoughts father day on conscious motivations; and seeing the present And future as more important than the past. Carl Rogers client centered therapy propose that therapist most important contributions are the functions as a cycle logical mirror active active listening and to provide a growth fostering environments of unconditional positive regard, characterized by genuineness, Acceptance, and empathy.
Discuss whether some psychotherapies are more effective than others for specific disorders.
No one type of psychotherapy is generally superior to all others.
Therapy is most effective for those with clear-cut, specific problems.
Some therapies—such as behavior conditioning for treating phobias and compulsions—are more effective for specific disorders.
Psychodynamic therapy has been effective for depression and anxiety, and
cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies have been effective in coping with anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression.
Evidence-based practice integrates the best available research with clinicians' expertise and patients' characteristics, preferences, and circumstances.
Identify what a person should look for when selecting a therapist.
A person seeking therapy may want to ask about the therapist's treatment approach, values, credentials, and fees.
An important consideration is whether the therapy seeker feels comfortable and able to establish a bond with the therapist.
Describe the drug therapies, and explain how double-blind studies help researchers evaluate a drug's effectiveness.
Psychopharmacology, the study of drug effects on mind and behavior, has helped make drug therapy the most widely used biomedical therapy.
Antipsychotic drugs, used in treating schizophrenia, block dopamine activity.
Side effects may include tardive dyskinesia (with involuntary movements of facial muscles, tongue, and limbs) or increased risk of obesity and diabetes.
Antianxiety drugs, which depress central nervous system activity, are used to treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder.
These drugs can be physically and psychologically addictive.
Antidepressant drugs, which increase the availability of serotonin and norepinephrine, are used for depression, with modest effectiveness beyond that of placebo drugs.
The antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (often called SSRI drugs) are now used to treat other disorders, including strokes and anxiety disorders. Lithium and Depakote are mood stabilizers prescribed for those with bipolar disorder.
Studies may use a double- blind procedure to avoid the placebo effect and researcher's bias.
Describe how a therapist might use both classical conditioning and operant conditioning techniques to help a client overcome a compulsive habit of smoking more than three packs of cigarettes a day. Be clear about the exact procedures that would be used with each form of conditioning.
Classical conditioning- the therapist might use effects of a nauseating drug to make smoking unpleasant
• operant conditioning- the therapist might give a positive reinforcement to not smoking
• cognitive learning- the therapist could appeal to the smokers intellect by citing the dangers of smoking
One of your best friends feels that he fails at everything he does and that his life isn't worth living. When you suggest that he talk to a psychotherapist, your friend responds, "Talking won't help. The more I talk about myself, the more I think about my problems. The more I think about my problems, the more depressed I get." Explain why your friend's comment illustrates his need for cognitive therapy. What procedures would a cognitive therapist use to help your friend overcome his negative feelings?
A cognitive therapist isn't occupied with the oblivious or unconscious, however
tries to discover a motivation behind why occasions prompt your condition. For
instance, the therapist tries to clarify action and occasions with specific
ideas and thoughts. The therapist will talk it out with your companion endeavoring
to clarify what caused every occasion that prompt the sorrow. At last, your
friend will turn out the therapist office feeling he can improve the situation
since it isn't his/her mistake for falling flat and not being able to succeed.
Damien has been treated unsuccessfully for severe depression with a variety of antidepressants. Damien's condition has worsened and he is now hospitalized after a suicide attempt. His psychiatrist is considering using ECT or rTMS. Describe each procedure and the advantages and disadvantages of each.
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