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Age of Jackson, Reform, Art, and Literature Learning Targets
Terms in this set (65)
Age of Jackson
Period when marked by belief that ordinary people should vote in elections, hold office, and do anything they had the ability to do.
Second Great Awakening
A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Work to change society for the better. Focused on improving conditions for the poor, enslaved, imprisoned, women, and disabled.
A devotion to the interests of one geographic region over the interests of the country as a whole
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme.
according to this idea, those who achieved success in America did so not as a result of hereditary privilege or government favoritism, but through their own intelligence and hard work. As thought by John Jacob Astor.
The "average" American citizen, whose concerns are represented in government.
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
A tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods
(1791) part of Hamilton's economic plan that would provide a common currency and source of capital for economy. Strongly opposed by James Madison.
A tax on imported/exported goods
Main reason of mass immigration of people into the United States
Indian Removal Act
(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River
Worcester vs. Georgia Supreme Court Case
This was the court case that said only the federal government had authority of the Native Americans, not the state government
Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws
Trail of Tears
The mass emigration of Native Americans who moved west of the Mississippi River after the Indian Removal Act
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
1832-33 was over the tariff policy of the Fed. Gov't during Jackson's presidency which prompted South Carolina to threaten the use of NULLIFICATION, possible secession and Andrew Jackson's determination to end with military force.
Favored the Tariff law
Hated the Tariff law, calling it the Tariff of Abomination. John C. Calhoun threatened the U.S to secede (as S. Carolina)
The arrival of the trail of tears on the WEST side of the Mississippi River
The discovery of this lead to the need of more slaves to use a cotton gin
A movement westward for jobs, land, hope, the gold rush, adventure, a new beginning and the transcontinental railroad. It lasted from 1850-1890
A method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
Development of a system which supports machine production of goods
Much more cotton growing because cotton growers get POWER
Trade became a problem due to the Tariff law which resulted in the Nullification Crisis.
to make useless; cancel
To formally withdraw from the union
Andrew Jackson's response to Worchester vs Georgia
The creation of the Indian Removal Act
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
non-violent protests against unjust laws. some forms are boycotts, sit-ins, and marches.
Political party lead by Andrew Jackson from 1828 to 1856. Campaigned against strong central government and fought to end elitism.
Anti-Jackson political party that generally stood for national community and an activist government
Led by John C. Calhoun in which they threatened to secede but stayed in the Union after Jackson's threat
a tax on imports. Northerners wanted taxes on both and Southerners wanted taxes on neither. The compromise was that congress would have the authority to impose taxes on imports, but not exports.
(1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. Appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces.
William Lloyd Garrison
a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, which he founded in 1831
American educator who was the first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, suggested reforms in educatio
American abolitionist and feminist. Born into slavery, she escaped in 1827 and became a leading preacher against slavery and for the rights of women., United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
American abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Seneca Falls, NY
The place where the first women's rights convention took place
Declaration of Sentiments
declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights
1787 law that set up a government for the Northwest Territory and a plan for admitting new states to the Union
15th century invention which revolutionized the ability to print information which in turn affected the speed of the spread of information itself.
Women's Rights Movement
Organized campaign to win property, education, and other rights for women.
A secret, shifting network which aided slaves escaping to the North and Canada, mainly after 1840.
The ideal of humanism was to direct the individual from his natural state to the cultural state of humanistic education
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption.
During 1840s, focus of prisons was to rehabilitate prisoners
Labor Reform Movement
organized workers into unions and used strikes to force better working conditions.
Mental illness treatment reform
Therapist intervention (psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, etc), drug intervention, treatment of underlying medical issue, psychiatric treatment
A movement characterized by fervent expressions of religious feeling among masses of people. (1730-1740)
-end slavery, -win equal rights for women, -ensure kind treatment of prisoners and the mentally ill, -improving education
Hudson River School
Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River
greatest ornithologist in America; wrote Birds of America; had to kill birds to model them to paint them
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
Edgar Allen Poe
(1809-1849). Orphaned at young age. Was an American poet, short-story writer, editor and literary critic, and is considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre. Failing at suicide, began drinking. Died in Baltimore shortly after being found drunk in a gutter. "the raven"
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotion
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