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AP Human Geography: Urban
Terms in this set (80)
Access Street Patter
Type of street design that provides access to a subdivision, housing project or highway
legally adding land area to a city in the US
a shantytown section on the outskirts of a large city in Latin America
Bid Rent Theory
a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate change as the distance from the central business district (CBD) increases. It states that different land users will compete with one another for land close to the city centre.
the practice of persuading owners to sell property cheaply because of the fear of people of another race or class moving into the neighborhood, and thus profiting by reselling at a higher price.
an area delineated by the US Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
Central Business District (CBD)
Businesses clustered at the center of the city, commonly called downtown.
a geographic area used in population and economic analysis. In addition to the major use of urban areas, it may be used to define rural areas which share a common market.
Concentric Zone Model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Control Street Pattern
street that controls access (toll roads, etc) with limited movement on and off to increase traffic flow
Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA)
a U.S. geographic area defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that consists of one or more counties (or equivalents) anchored by an urban center of at least 10,000 people plus adjacent counties that are socioeconomically tied to the urban center by commuting.
Council of Government
a cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the US
de-urbanization, is a demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas. It is, like suburbanization, inversely related to urbanization.
the movement of departments of a large organization away from a single administrative center to other locations.
Dendritic Street Pattern
street pattern characterized by fewer streets organized into a hierarchy based on the amount of traffic each is intended to carry--they form the "loop" or "lollipop" typical of urban sprawl neighborhoods
the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
a large node of office and retail activites on the edge of an urban area
a wider report on the world's most globally-connected cities, measuring them by business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience and political engagement
a port, city, or other center to which goods are brought for import and export, and for collection and distribution.
an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background.
a Brazilian shack or shanty town; a slum.
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment.
Airport or seaport that serves as the entry point to a country by being the primary arrival and departure point.
a process of converting an urban neighbohood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.
a part of a city, especially a slum area, occupied by a minority group or groups; put in or restrict to an isolated or segregated area or group.
not an exquisite, completed artifact. It is a dynamic, constantly changing place that residents and their leaders can reshape to satisfy their demands.
a ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Grid Street Pattern
or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid.
Areas along or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to the research, development and sale of high-technologyproducts. These areas develop because of the networking and synergistic advantages of concentrating high-tchnology enterprises in close proximity to one another
encompasses all jobs which are not recognized as normal income sources, and on which taxes are not paid. The term is sometimes used to refer to only illegal activity, such as an individual who earns wages but does not claim them on his or her income taxes, or a cruel situation where people are forced to work without pay. However, the informal sector could also be interpreted to include legal activities, such as jobs that are performed in exchange for something other than money.
the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
the area near the center of a city, especially when associated with social and economic problems.
Invasion / Succession
A theoretical construct, setting out the sequence of competitive social actions by which a human group or social activity comes to occupy and dominate a territory, formerly dominated by another group or activity.
commuting that occurs between suburban areas rather than towards the central city
a very large city, typically one with a population of over ten million people.
Megalopolis / Conurbation
a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.
a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
Metropolitan Statistical Area
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Micropolitan Statistical Area
an urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
Multiple Nuclei Model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighborhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types.
an area where a number of office buildings are built together on landscaped grounds.
Peak land value intersection
the region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce. As such, it is usually located in the central business district of a town or city, and has the greatest density of transport links such as roads and rail.
a model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped greenfield land. This contrasts with settlements that evolve in a more ad hoc fashion.
the stage of society's development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy.
Postmodern urban landscape
Attempts to reconnect people to place through its architecture, the preservation of historical buildings, the re-emergence of mixed land uses and connections among developments.
Primary Census Statistical Area (PCSA)
In the United States, all of the combined statistical areas plus all of the remaining metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas
housing owned by the government; in the US, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the familie's incomes.
to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race. ... Advising customers to purchase homes in particular neighborhoods on the basis of race.
a process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
a covenant imposing a restriction on the use of land so that the value and enjoyment of adjoining land will be preserved.
the four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic.
a model of the internal strucutre of citeis in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD)
the action or state of setting someone or something apart from other people or things or being set apart.
a large building or series of connected buildings containing a variety of retail stores and typically also restaurants.
a squalid and overcrowded urban street or district inhabited by very poor people.
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
Social Area Analysis
Statistical anlaysis used to identify where people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and life style live within a urban area
development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
an area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
an outlying district of a city, especially a residential one.
a population shift from central urban areas into suburbs, resulting in formation of (sub)urban sprawl
a room or a set of rooms forming a separate residence within a house or block of apartments.
an urban area that has a name, defined boundaries, and local government, and that is generally larger than a village and smaller than a city.
a group in society prevented from participating in material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
(of a person) not having enough paid work or not doing work that makes full use of their skills and abilities.
In urban areas this relates to the purpose of a land use for residential areas, recreation, industry etc.
Urban Growth Rate
The increase in the proportion of urban population over time, calculated as the rate of growth of the urban popu- lation minus that of the total population. Positive rates of urbanization result when the urban population grows at a faster rate than the total population.
Urban Hearth Area
An area, like Mesopotamia or the Nile River Valley where large cities first existed.
Urban Heat Island
an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities. The main cause of the urban heat island effect is from the modification of land surfaces. Waste heat generated by energy usage is a secondary contributor.
each city based on the size of population residing within the nationally defined statistical urban area.
a science investigating the hydrological cycle and its change, water regime and quality within the urbanized landscape and zones of its impact.
the study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation
program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from the private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilites, and turn the land over to private developers.
an increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
in the US, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs.
A global city sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network. The concept comes from geography and urban studies, and the idea that globalization is created, facilitated, and enacted in strategic geographic locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade.
Zone in Transition
the area between the factoryzone and the working class zone in the Concentriczone model of urban structure devised by Ernest Burgess. The zone of transition is an area of flux where the land use is changing.
a law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of the development of a community.
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