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the highest layer of atmospher 500km+
very few molecules
greater than 800c
hydrogen and helium
hubbel telescope


hottest layer,85km-500km,aurora borealis, thin gases


50km-85km, meteors,ionosphere,-5c-90c,


contains ozone layer, 10km-50km, weather balloons,


10km, lowest layer, 99% water vapor75% gasses,weather

jet stream

a high-speed high-altitude airstream blowing from west to east near the top of the troposphere


no wind

coriolis effect

the shifting of winds currents from their expected paths that is caused by earth's rotation

density current

a current that forms in the ocean because a mass of a seawater becomes more dense than the surrounding water and sinks

surface current

a current in the ocean that moves water horizontially,or parallel to earth's surface


a vertical circulation in the ocean that brings deep, cold water to the ocean surface

sea breeze

currents created during the day because solar radiation warms the land more than the water,so the sea moves towards the warm land.

land breeze

movement of air from land to sea at night, created when cooler, denser air from the land forces up warmer air over the sea and the sea moves away from the land


thin layer of air that forms a protective covering around the planet


layer of electrically charged particles in the thermosphere that absorbs AM radio waves during the day and reflects them back at night

ozone layer

layer of the startosphere with a high concentration of ozone; absorbs most of the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation

ultraviolation radiation

one of the many types of energy that copmes from the sun

trade winds

steady winds that blow 30 degrees latitude north and south


prevaling winds that blow from west to east between 30 degrees & 60degrees latitude in the hemisphere.

polar easterlies

Prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60degrees-90degrees latitude in both hemisphere.

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