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104 terms

Pharmacology Test 4

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adrenergic agonists
drugs that stimulate and mimic the actions of the sympathetic nervous system
sympathomimetics
adrenergic agonists
adrenergic receptors
receptor sites for the sympathetic neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine
alpha-adrenergic receptors
a class of adrenergic receptors that are further subdivided into alpha 1 and alpha 2 and are differentiated by anatomic location
autonomic functions
bodily functions that are involuntary and result from the physiologic activity of the ANS, functions often occur in pairs of opposing actions
autonomic nervous system
a branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls autonomic bodily functions
sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
make up the autonomic nervous system
beta adrenergic receptors
receptors located in postsynaptic effector cells of tissues
beta 1 adrenergic receptors
located primarily in the heart
beta 2 adrenergic receptors
located primarily in the smooth muscle fibers of bronchioles and viseral organs
catecholamines
substances that can produce sympathomimetic response
endogenous catecholimines
epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine
synthetic catecholamine drug
dobutamine
dopaminergic receptor
a third type of adrenergic receptor in addition to alpha and beta and activated by binding of neurotransmitter dopamine
mydriasis
pupillary dilation
ophthalmics
drugs for the eye
positive chronotropic effect
increase in heart rate
positive dromotropic effect
an increase in the conduction of cardiac electrical impulses through the AV node
ventricular contractions
systolic heartbeat
positive inotropic effect
increase in the force of contraction of the heart muscle
drugs used to mimic catecholamines-epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine
sympathomimetics
synaptic cleft
space between adjacent nerve cells or the nerve cell membrane and an effector organ cell membrane
nervous system
consists of central and peripheral
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
autonomic and somatic nervous systems
somatic nervous system
skeletal muscle
parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system
autonomic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system
cholinergic-acetylcholine
sympathetic nervous system
adrenergic-norepinephrine
synapse
synaptic cleft
fight or flight
sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system
vasoactive adrenergics
adrenergics having primarily cardiovascular effects
dobutamine
dobutrex-beta 1 selective vasoactive adrenergic
dopamine
intropin-naturally occuring catecholimine neurotransmitter in SNS
epinephrine
adrenalin-endogenous vasoactive catecholamine
midodrine
requires careful blood pressure monitoring
increased cardiac contractility
beta 1 agonists can cause......
inhaled salmeterol
is for the prevention of bronchospasm
negative chronotropic effect
decreased heart rate
beta adrenergic agonist side effects include...
mild tremors, tachycardia,palpitations,nervousness
agonists
drugs with specific receptor affinity that mimic the bodys natural chemicals
angina
paroxysmal chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia
paroxysmal
sudden
antagonists
drugs that bind to specific receptors and inhibit or block the response of the receptors
dysrhythmias
irregular heart rythms
arrhythmias
dysrhythmias
extravasation
leaky blood vessels
lipophilicity
the chemical attraction of a substance to lipid molecules
pheochromocytoma
vascular adrenal gland tumor secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
sympatholytics
drugs that inhibit the postganlionic functioning of the sympathetic nervous system
tamsulosin
flomax
vasodilation
result of injecting alpha blocker phentolamine
phentolamine
regitine-alpha blocker
bradycardia
beta 1 blockers can cause
main purpose of beta blockers
protect the heart from circulating catecholamines
alpha-blockers can cause....
orthostatic hypotension,increased urine flow,headaches
acetylcholine-needed for normal brain function
neurotransmitter responsible for transmission of nerve impulses to effector cells in the PNS
acetylcholinesterase
enzyme responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine
cholinesterase
acetylcholinesterase
cholingergic receptor
nerve receptors that is stimulated by acetylcholine
miosis
pupil contraction
muscarinic receptors
cholinergic receptors that are located postsynaptically in the effector organs such as smooth muscle
nicotinic receptors
cholinergic receptors located in the ganglia of both PNS and SNS
stimulated by alkaloid nicotine
nicotinic receptors
ganglia
where presynaptic and postsynaptic nerve fibers meet
parasympathomimetics
drugs that mimic the PNS
cholinergic agonist drugs
parasympathomimetics
bethanechol
urecholine-direct acting cholinergic agonist should be taken with meals to avoid GI upset, contraindicated with peptic ulcer
donepezil
aricept-indirect acting anticholinesterase drug
atropine
treat cholinergic drug overdose
pyridostigmine
mestinon-treat MG, should be taken 30 minutes before meals
cholinergic crisis symptoms include
hypotension,syncope,dyspnea
cholinergic-blocking drugs
block the action of acetylcholine at receptor sites-
mydriasis
dilation of the pupil
parasympatholytics
reduce the activity of the PNS
anticholinergics-avoid high temperatures
parasympatholytics-can cause dry mouth
antimuscarinic drugs
anticholinergics or parasympatholytics-avoid using with TCA
primarily used in the management of cardiovascular disorders
atropine
tolterodine
detrol-muscarinic receptor blocker
cholinergic antagonists
parasympatholytics,cholinergic blockers, anticholinergics-contraindicated with BPH
vasoconstriction and central nervous system stimulation
predominant alpha adrenergic agonist response
stimulation of beta 1 in the kidneys
increases renin production
beta 2 agonists
helpful in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis
beta 2 selective adrenergic drugs include
albuterol, ephedrine, formoterol,levalbuterol,metaproterenol, pirbuterol, salmeterol and terbutaline
esmolol
rapid acting sympatholytic drug to lower blood pressure
alpha adrenergic receptor stimulation results in
vasoconstriction of blood vessels
beta 1 adrenergic receptors results in
bronchodilation
phentolamine-alpha blocker
used to treat infiltration of adrenergic drugs by causing localized vasodilation
adventitious
abnormal
alpha 2 active drug
clonidine
benign prostatic hyperplasia
bph-treated with terozosin and doxazosin, alpha blockers
tamsulosin
flomax, to treat bph
glycogenolysis
production of glucose from glycogen in the liver
angina
chest pain
atropine-antimuscarinic
management of bradycardia for overdose of beta blockers
atenolol
tenormin-beta blocker to prevent future MI
nonselective beta blockers
protect the heart from circulating catecholamines
physostigmine
antidote for anticholinergic poisoning, treatment for MG
bethanechol
used to treat decreased or absent peristalsis related to surgery
dicyclomine
bentyl-gi motility-anticholinergic
glycopyrrolate
robinal-antimuscarinic-decrease secretions
oxybutynin
ditropan-overactive bladder-antimuscarinic
scopolamine
anticholinergic-motion sickness
contraindications for anticholinergic
bph,tricyclic antidepressants