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Terms in this set (2)

1. Protein is needed by the body because it provides

a. energy.
b. peptides.
c. fatty acids.
d. amino acids.

ANS: D
The body needs protein because it provides amino acids, needed to make all the proteins in the body. Excess protein can be used to provide energy, but the body does not need it for this purpose because it can obtain energy from carbohydrate and fat. Protein is made up of peptides, strings of amino acids joined together, but these are only needed by the body because of the amino acids they supply. Protein does not supply fatty acids.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 103
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

2. The amount of protein that most Americans eat is

a. less than we need.
b. more than we need.
c. about the amount we need.
d. very different from day to day.

ANS: B
Most Americans eat more protein than we need.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 111
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

3. In addition to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, amino acids also contain

a. nitrogen.
b. potassium.
c. iron.
d. sodium.

ANS: A
The amino groups in amino acids contain nitrogen. Amino acids do not contain potassium, iron, or sodium.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 103
TOP: Nursing Process: Analysis
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

4. Nine of the 20 amino acids are considered essential because they

a. contain sulfur.
b. are found only in animal proteins.
c. cannot be manufactured by the body.
d. are the only amino acids used to make body proteins.

ANS: C
These amino acids are considered essential because they cannot be manufactured by the body and must be eaten in food. Some amino acids do contain sulfur, but this is not related to them being essential or nonessential. Essential amino acids are found in both animal and plant proteins. All amino acids, essential and nonessential, are used to make body proteins.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 103-104
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

5. Nonessential amino acids can be made by the liver using

a. glucose and urea.
b. other amino acids.
c. fatty acids and glycerol.
d. enzymes and hormones.

ANS: B
The body can make nonessential amino acids from other amino acids. Once the amino group has been removed from an amino acid and has been formed into urea, the body cannot turn it back into an amino acid. Fatty acids and glycerol cannot be used to make amino acids. Enzymes and hormones may help control the manufacture of nonessential amino acids but are not themselves used to make them.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 103
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

6. The secondary structure of proteins refers to the

a. combination of polypeptide chains.
b. sequence of amino acids in the chain.
c. strong bonds between loops of the chain.
d. straight, folded, or coiled shape of the amino acid chain.

ANS: D
The secondary structure of proteins refers to the straight, folded, or coiled shape of the amino acid chain. The combination of polypeptide chains is the quaternary structure. The sequence of amino acids in the chain is the primary structure. The strong bonds between loops of the chain is the tertiary structure.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 105-106
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

7. A client may be in a danger of their body proteins becoming denatured if they have a

a. drug overdose.
b. very high fever.
c. vitamin deficiency.
d. high stress level.

ANS: B
Very high fever may denature body proteins, because the extreme heat changes the shape of the protein. Drug overdoses, vitamin deficiencies, and high stress levels do not denature proteins.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 106
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

8. The enzyme that begins digestion of protein in the stomach is

a. pepsin.
b. renin.
c. trypsin.
d. protease.

ANS: A
The enzyme that begins protein digestion in the stomach is pepsin. Renin is another enzyme secreted in the stomach in infants; it coagulates milk protein to keep it in the stomach longer to allow more time for digestion, but it does not begin protein digestion. Trypsin continues protein digestion in the small intestine. Peptidases are important in completing breakdown of peptides into amino acids.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 106
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

9. Loss of muscle tissue during recovery from a serious accident is an example of

a. anabolism.
b. catabolism.
c. deamination.
d. metabolism.

ANS: B
During recovery from a serious accident, the physical stress and immobility cause loss of muscle tissue through catabolism. Anabolism occurs when new protein is being formed during growth or healing. Deamination is one part of catabolism; it refers to removal of the amino group when amino acids are broken down. Metabolism is a general term that includes both anabolism and catabolism.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Pages 107-108
TOP: Nursing Process: Analysis MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

10. The vitamin that is essential for absorption of amino acids is

a. vitamin B6.
b. folate.
c. vitamin A.
d. vitamin E.

ANS: A
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is needed as a carrier for absorption of amino acids. Folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E have other essential roles in the body, not related to protein absorption.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 108
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

11. An example of a situation in which positive nitrogen balance occurs is

a. aging.
b. infection.
c. starvation.
d. pregnancy.

ANS: D
Positive nitrogen balance means that more nitrogen is retained in the body than is excreted. This would be the situation in pregnancy when new tissue is being formed in the mother and fetus. Aging, infection, and starvation are all times when the body would be in negative nitrogen balance.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 108
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

12. The main structural protein found in connective tissues, bone, and teeth is called

a. fibrin.
b. albumin.
c. collagen.
d. hemoglobin.

ANS: C
The main structural protein found in connective tissues, bone, and teeth is called collagen. Fibrin is an important protein in blood clots. Albumin is an important blood plasma protein. Hemoglobin is the main protein that carries oxygen in the blood.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 109
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

13. Proteins that are produced by the immune system in response to specific foreign viruses and bacteria are called

a. hormones.
b. antibodies.
c. lipoproteins.
d. enzymes.

ANS: B
Proteins that are produced by the immune system in response to viruses and bacteria are called antibodies. Hormones are chemical messengers in the body that are sometimes proteins. Enzymes are protein catalysts in the body. Lipoproteins are proteins that carry lipids in the bloodstream.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 109
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

14. An important role of proteins in the body includes

a. temperature regulation.
b. acid-base balance.
c. conduction of nerve impulses.
d. elimination of waste products.

ANS: B
An important role of proteins in the body includes acid-base balance. Proteins do not have a major role in temperature regulation, conduction of nerve impulses, or elimination of waste products.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 109
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity
15. The protein that carries oxygen in muscles is called

a. ferritin.
b. oxyglobin.
c. myoglobin.
d. hemoglobin.

ANS: C
The protein that carries oxygen in muscles is called myoglobin. Ferritin is a protein that carries iron in the bloodstream. Oxyglobin does not exist. Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen in the bloodstream.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 109
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity


16. Phenylketonuria is caused by

a. excessive intake of phenylalanine.
b. failure to break down excess phenylalanine.
c. inadequate intake of phenylalanine during pregnancy.
d. inability to digest proteins that contain phenylalanine.

ANS: B
Phenylketonuria is caused by failure to break down excess phenylalanine. It is a genetic disorder and is not caused by excessive intake of phenylalanine, inadequate intake of phenylalanine during pregnancy, or inability to digest proteins that contain phenylalanine.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 110
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

17. An example of a food that contains complete protein is

a. oatmeal.
b. lentil soup.
c. peanut butter.
d. hard-boiled egg.

ANS: D
Eggs and most other animal foods contain complete protein. Grains, legumes, and nuts contain incomplete proteins.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Pages 109-111
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

18. Incomplete protein

a. has no nutritional value in the diet.
b. is mostly found in foods of animal origin.
c. has been denatured by contact with heat, acid, or alkali.
d. contains inadequate amounts of one or more essential amino acids.

ANS: D
Incomplete protein contains inadequate amounts of one or more essential amino acids. It still has nutritional value and may be combined with another incomplete protein to provide complete protein. Incomplete proteins are found mostly in plant foods. Denaturing proteins does not affect their amino acids content and make them incomplete.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 110
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance



19. An example of a meal that contains complementary proteins is

a. pasta and tomato sauce.
b. split pea soup with crackers.
c. oatmeal and buttered toast.
d. fruit yogurt with strawberries.

ANS: B
Split pea soup with crackers contains complementary proteins; the incomplete legume protein in the split pea soup complements the incomplete grain protein in the crackers. Vegetables such as tomato sauce and fruit such as strawberries do not contain sufficient protein to complement another incomplete protein in a meal. Oatmeal and toast are both grains and so their incomplete proteins are not complementary. Fruit yogurt contains complete protein and does not need to be combined with an incomplete protein.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Pages 110-111
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

20. A measurement of the quality of food protein based on the amount that is retained in the body after digestion, absorption, and excretion is

a. biologic value.
b. amino acid score.
c. protein efficiency ratio.
d. urinary urea excretion.

ANS: A
The measurement of food protein quality that is based on the amount retained in the body after digestion, absorption, and excretion is biologic value. Amino acid score measures the amino acid content of a food compared with a reference protein. Protein efficiency ratio measures the effects of different proteins on weight gain in rats. Urinary urea excretion measures the amount of nitrogen excreted from the body; this includes nitrogen from breakdown of endogenous (body) proteins and exogenous (food) proteins.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 111
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

21. Men generally require more protein than women because they

a. are more active.
b. have more lean body mass.
c. have a higher metabolic rate.
d. use dietary protein less efficiently.

ANS: B
Men generally require more protein than women because they have more lean body mass than women; lean body mass requires more protein to maintain. Men are not necessarily more active than women. They do have a high metabolic rate, but this is because they have more lean body mass; their higher metabolic rate affects their energy needs, not their protein needs. Men do not use protein less efficiently than women.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 111
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity | Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

22. The protein needs of athletes are

a. lower than those of nonathletes.
b. the same as those of nonathletes.
c. higher than those of nonathletes.
d. currently being determined by researchers.

ANS: C
Athletes have high protein needs than nonathletes (1.2 to 1.7 versus 0.8 g/kg, respectively). Most Americans consume the amount of protein recommended for athletes, so most American athletes do not need to increase their protein intake.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 111
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

23. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein for a healthy adult who weighs 60 kg is _____ g/day.

a. 36
b. 48
c. 60
d. 72

ANS: B
The RDA for protein for a healthy adult is 0.8 g/kg per day. Therefore the RDA for an adult who weighs 60 kg is 0.8 ´ 60 = 48 g/day.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Pages 111-112
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

24. A vegan diet contains

a. plant foods only.
b. mostly raw foods.
c. plant foods plus eggs.
d. plant foods plus fish.

ANS: A
Vegan diets contain only plant foods. Diets that contain mostly raw foods are macrobiotic diets. Diets than contain plant foods plus eggs are ovo-vegetarian diets. Diets that contain plant foods plus fish are pescetarian diets (these diets also usually include eggs and milk).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 112
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

25. Strict vegan diets may be associated with low intakes of

a. vitamins A and D.
b. vitamins B12 and D.
c. folate and vitamin C.
d. vitamin E and selenium.

ANS: B
Strict vegan diets do not contain any vitamin B12 (only found in animal products) and vitamin D (mostly obtained from fortified milk). Vegan diets contain plenty of carotenoids which the body can convert into vitamin A, and plenty of folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 113
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity | Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

26. A Jew who follows a strict kosher diet would not eat

a. macaroni and cheese.
b. a cheeseburger and fries.
c. a bean and cheese burrito.
d. roast beef with mashed potatoes.

ANS: B
A Jew who follows a strict kosher diet would not eat a cheeseburger because they are not allowed to eat meat and dairy together. Macaroni and cheese and a bean and cheese burrito both contain only dairy. Roast beef with mashed potatoes is acceptable as long as the beef has been slaughtered appropriately.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 114
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning, Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial integrity

27. An appropriate size serving of meat, poultry, or fish is about the size of

a. your fist.
b. a dollar bill.
c. the palm of your hand.
d. one fourth of a dinner plate.

ANS: C
An appropriate size serving of meat, poultry, or fish is about the size of the palm of your hand. This represents about 3 ounces. A fist and one fourth of most dinner plates would make the serving size too large. A dollar bill is flat and therefore does not give a 3-dimensional serving size.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 115
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning, Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

28. Kwashiorkor is a type of malnutrition usually caused by

a. intake of incomplete protein sources.
b. excessive intakes of protein and fluid.
c. inadequate intakes of protein and energy.
d. inadequate protein intake with adequate energy intake.

ANS: D
Kwashiorkor is usually caused by inadequate protein intake with adequate energy intake. Intake of incomplete protein sources could contribute to inadequate protein intake, but does not address the adequate energy intake found in kwashiorkor. Excessive intakes of protein and fluid would not cause malnutrition. Inadequate intakes of protein and energy cause marasmus.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 123
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

29. Examples of individuals who may have an increased risk of malnutrition include

a. inactive middle-aged men.
b. sleep-deprived adolescents.
c. children with chronic infections.
d. breast-fed infants.

ANS: C
Chronic infection at any age and especially in childhood increases the risk of malnutrition because nutrient needs may be higher and nutrients may not be so well absorbed. Also appetite may be lower. Inactivity in middle-aged men is likely to lead to overnutrition, not undernutrition. Sleep-deprivation in adolescents is not associated with malnutrition. Breast-fed infants are usually well-nourished and are not at high risk for malnutrition.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 117
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity | Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

30. An example of the lifestyle habit of "chaining" is

a. gradually reducing intake of sugar-sweetened beverages.
b. eating a piece of fruit with a sandwich every lunchtime.
c. keeping a record of all food and beverages eaten.
d. involving all family members in choosing healthy foods.

ANS: B
Eating a piece of fruit with a sandwich every lunchtime is an example of "chaining." Chaining involves linking two behaviors; soon the individual will always want to eat a piece of fruit whenever they eat a sandwich. Gradually reducing intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, keeping a record of all food and beverages eaten, and involving all family members in choosing healthy foods are other good strategies to help improve eating habits.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 119
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning, Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial integrity