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Terms in this set (2)

1. If a woman who drinks a cup of decaffeinated coffee in the morning, a cup of fruit juice with lunch, 6 cups of water throughout the day and a cup of tea at bedtime, her fluid intake would be considered

a. dangerously low.
b. below optimal.
c. optimal.
d. too high.

ANS: C
This woman's total fluid intake for the day is 9 cups, the recommended amount for women. Minimum fluid intake for health is around 4 cups; intake below this would be considered dangerously low. Fluid intake can be too high, but the specific amount that causes water intoxication is unknown.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 148
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity | Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

2. Hard water contains high levels of minerals such as

a. iron and zinc.
b. lead and sulfur.
c. sodium and potassium.
d. calcium and magnesium.

ANS: D
Hard water contains calcium and magnesium. Some natural water sources contain iron (this water may stain sinks and appliances brown). Lead is considered a contaminant in water. Softened water contains sodium. Zinc, sulfur, and potassium are not usually found in water.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 149
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

3. Interstitial fluid is the body fluid

a. within the cells.
b. outside the cells.
c. between the cells.
d. in the bloodstream.

ANS: C
Interstitial fluid is the body fluid between the cells. The fluid within the cells is intracellular fluid; the fluid outside the cells is extracellular fluid; the fluid in the bloodstream is blood plasma.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 150
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

4. Within the body, water helps to

a. dissolve lipids.
b. store excess energy.
c. insulate nerve fibers.
d. regulate body temperature.

ANS: D
Within the body, water helps to regulate body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat throughout the body and via perspiration. Lipids do not dissolve in water. Water does not contain energy. Nerve fibers are insulated by myelin, not water.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 151
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

5. Maintenance of physiologic equilibrium within the body is known as

a. hemostasis.
b. homeostasis.
c. water balance.
d. metabolic regulation.

ANS: B
Maintenance of physiologic equilibrium within the body is known as homeostasis. Hemostasis is not a recognized term. Water balance is only one aspect of homeostasis. Metabolic regulation describes homeostasis, but is not the recognized term for it.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 151
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

6. The hormone that causes the body to decrease sodium excretion is called

a. adrenaline.
b. aldosterone.
c. alanine.
d. antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

ANS: B
The hormone that causes the body to decrease sodium excretion is aldosterone. Adrenaline is released in response to stress. Alanine is an amino acid, not a hormone. ADH causes the kidneys to decrease water excretion.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 153
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

7. The primary intracellular electrolyte is

a. sodium.
b. calcium.
c. potassium.
d. magnesium.

ANS: C
The primary intracellular electrolyte is potassium. Sodium is the primary extracellular electrolyte. Calcium and magnesium are not electrolytes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 153
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

8. In an older adult who is usually very alert, disorientation may be a sign of

a. iron deficiency.
b. malnutrition.
c. edema.
d. dehydration.

ANS: D
Disorientation may be a sign of dehydration, which is common in older adults, partly because their thirst mechanism is diminished. Iron deficiency anemia causes tiredness, but not disorientation. Severe malnutrition may affect mental acuity, but is less likely than dehydration. Edema causes swelling, but does not usually affect orientation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 153
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

9. Edema may be caused by inadequate intake of

a. protein.
b. sodium.
c. chloride.
d. potassium.

ANS: A
Edema may be caused by inadequate intake of protein if protein levels in the body become so low that cellular fluid levels become imbalanced. Edema may be caused by high, not low, sodium levels and is not caused by low chloride or potassium levels.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 153-154
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

10. The term bioavailability means the

a. total amount of a mineral in a food.
b. ratio of free to bound mineral in a food.
c. amount of a mineral that is excreted by the body.
d. amount of a mineral that can be absorbed by the body from a food.

ANS: D
Bioavailability is the amount of a mineral that can be absorbed by the body from a food. It is generally lower than the total amount of the mineral in a food. It may be related to the ratio of free to bound mineral in a food, but that is only one of many factors affecting bioavailability. It is not related to the amount excreted by the body.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 155
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

11. Daily dietary calcium intake affects

a. body temperature.
b. muscular strength.
c. bone calcium levels.
d. blood calcium levels.

ANS: C
Long-term dietary calcium intake affects bone calcium levels. Calcium does not affect body temperature. The body maintains steady levels of calcium in the blood and muscles, using calcium from bone if dietary intake is insufficient.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 154, 158
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

12. Beverages that contain substances that decrease absorption of calcium include

a. tea.
b. milk.
c. orange juice.
d. bottled water.

ANS: A
Tea contains oxalic acid and tannins, both of which decrease absorption of calcium. Milk contains lactose and vitamin D which increase calcium absorption. Orange juice and bottled water do not have a significant positive or negative effect on calcium absorption.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Pages 158, 161
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

13. Lifestyle changes that may help prevent development of osteoporosis include

a. reducing intake of animal protein.
b. eating a piece of fruit with lunch every day.
c. taking a daily multivitamin supplement.
d. taking a 30 minute walk most days.

ANS: D
Taking a 30 minute walk most days may help prevent development of osteoporosis because regular exercise stimulates an increase in bone density. Eating vegetable versus animal protein, increasing intake of fruit, and use of multivitamin supplements are unlikely to prevent osteoporosis (although they may have other health benefits).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 163
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

14. An example of a food high in phosphorus is

a. rice.
b. carrot.
c. cheese.
d. banana.

ANS: C
Foods high in phosphorus include dairy foods (such as cheese). Many processed convenience foods and soft drinks also contain phosphorus as additives. Fruits, vegetables, and rice are not good sources of phosphorus

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 170
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

15. A good source of calcium for someone who follows a strict vegetarian (vegan) diet would be

a. coconut milk.
b. a bean burrito.
c. skim milk.
d. pasta salad.

ANS: B
A good vegan source of calcium is a bean burrito because legumes contain calcium. Coconut milk and pasta salad are not good sources of calcium. Skim milk is not included in a vegan diet.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 161
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance
16. Magnesium deficiency may occur in association with

a. lactation.
b. type 1 diabetes.
c. excessive vomiting and diarrhea.
d. dehydration attributable to heat exposure.

ANS: C
Magnesium deficiency may occur secondary to excessive vomiting and diarrhea. Lactation, type 1 diabetes, and dehydration due to heat exposure do not cause magnesium deficiency.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 164
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

17. Of the following, the food choice that contains the least sodium is

a. cornbread.
b. corn tortilla.
c. corn on the cob.
d. buttered popcorn.

ANS: C
The food choice that contains the least sodium is corn on the cob. This is the least processed of all these forms of corn. Food processing usually involves addition of sodium.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Pages 165-166
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

18. A sodium intake of 2100 mg daily of a healthy adult would be considered

a. below the Adequate Intake (AI).
b. within the recommended range.
c. below the maximum recommended level.
d. above the maximum recommended level.

ANS: C
A sodium intake of 2100 mg daily is below the maximum level recommended by the National Research Council (2400 mg/day) and the American Heart Association (2300 mg/day). The AI is 1500 mg. There is no recommended range for sodium intake, just the AI and upper limits.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 165
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Evaluation
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

19. Signs of potassium deficiency include

a. excessive thirst and urination.
b. muscle weakness and confusion.
c. shortness of breath and dizziness.
d. twitching of muscles and convulsions.

ANS: B
Signs of potassium deficiency include muscle weakness and confusion. Excessive thirst and urination is a sign of high blood glucose levels associated with uncontrolled diabetes. Shortness of breath and dizziness may be caused by cardiac failure or other causes. Twitching of muscles and convulsions may have many causes but are not caused by potassium deficiency.
20. Foods that contain chloride usually also contain

a. sodium.
b. calcium.
c. potassium.
d. magnesium.

ANS: A
Chloride in foods is usually associated with sodium. It is not usually found in foods in association with calcium or magnesium. Some salt substitutes contain potassium chloride, but chloride is not associated with potassium in foods.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 167
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

21. Young women require more dietary iron than young men

a. because they absorb iron less efficiently.
b. to compensate for their lower muscle mass.
c. to replace blood losses during menstruation.
d. because they recycle hemoglobin more rapidly.

ANS: C
Young women require more dietary iron than young men to replace blood losses during menstruation. There is no difference between iron absorption or hemoglobin recycling in young men versus young women. Higher iron intake does not compensate for lower muscle mass in women.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 167-169
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity | Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

22. The form of dietary iron that is absorbed most easily is

a. heme iron.
b. nonheme iron.
c. free iron.
d. supplemental iron.

ANS: A
Heme iron is absorbed most easily. Nonheme iron is absorbed less efficiently. Iron in foods is not described as "free." Iron supplements contain nonheme iron which is absorbed less efficiently.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 169
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

23. The effects of iron deficiency are caused by

a. increased blood pressure.
b. increased risk of blood clotting.
c. decreased ability of the blood to transport oxygen.
d. decreased numbers of muscle fibers and brain cells.

ANS: C
The effects of iron deficiency are caused by decreased ability of the blood to transport oxygen. Blood pressure, blood clotting, muscle fibers, and brain cells are not immediately affected by iron deficiency.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 169
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

24. Hemosiderosis, storage of too much iron in the body, is most likely to occur in

a. a man who drinks 5 or more alcoholic beverages every night.
b. an adolescent who drinks 4 or more soft drinks daily.
c. a toddler who prefers drinking milk to eating meals.
d. a pregnant woman who takes iron supplements.

ANS: A
Hemosiderosis is most likely to occur in a man with a high intake of alcohol. Adolescents who have high intakes of soft drinks are likely to have high intakes of phosphorus. Toddlers who prefer to drink milk rather than eating meals may develop iron deficiency. Pregnant women who take iron supplements are unlikely to store too much iron because iron needs are very high during pregnancy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 171
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

25. In countries where the staple food source is unleavened bread made from whole grains, zinc deficiency may be prevented by

a. eating refined grains.
b. making breads with yeast.
c. eating fortified grains.
d. soaking grains before making bread.

ANS: B
Zinc deficiency may be prevented by making breads with yeast; the yeast breaks the bond between the zinc and phytic acid which prevents it from being absorbed. Eating refined grains would result in even lower zinc intake; fortification of grains does not include adding zinc; and soaking grains before making bread does not release the zinc from the phytic acid.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Pages 171-172
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

26. The main source of iodine in the United States is

a. seafood.
b. dairy products.
c. fortified table salt.
d. residues of cleaning products.

ANS: C
The main source of iodine in the United States is fortified table salt. Seafood is a good source but most Americans do not eat it often enough for it to be their main source of iodine. Dairy products may contain some iodine, depending on the animal food, but this is not a reliable source. Residues of cleaning products may provide some dietary iodine, but this is not usually enough to be significant.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 172
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

27. Deficiency of iodine reduces thyroxine production, which causes

a. microcytic anemia.
b. fever and dehydration.
c. delayed wound healing.
d. lethargy and weight gain.

ANS: D
Deficiency of iodine causes lethargy and weight gain. Microcytic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency. Fever and dehydration are not related to nutrient deficiencies. Delayed wound healing may be caused by deficiencies of zinc or vitamin C.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 172
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

28. Dietary fluoride is important to

a. decrease staining of teeth.
b. decrease sensitivity of teeth.
c. stimulate production of saliva.
d. increase the strength of tooth enamel.

ANS: D
Dietary fluoride is important to increase the strength of tooth enamel. It does not decrease staining or sensitivity of teeth or stimulate production of saliva.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 173
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

29. In the United States, low intake of selenium may be associated with increased risk of

a. cancer.
b. osteoporosis.
c. hypertension.
d. type 2 diabetes.

ANS: A
Low intakes of selenium may be associated with increased risk of cancer because selenium functions as an antioxidant which protects cells from damage. Selenium is not associated with risk of osteoporosis, hypertension, or type 2 diabetes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 173
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

30. Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder that causes excessive accumulation of

a. iron.
b. zinc.
c. copper.
d. chromium.

ANS: C
Wilson's disease causes excessive accumulation of copper. Excessive accumulation of iron is called hemosiderosis. Excessive accumulation of zinc and chromium does not have specific names.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Pages 171, 174
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity

31. A good dietary source of chromium is

a. pasta.
b. grapes.
c. oatmeal.
d. cauliflower.

ANS: C
Oatmeal is a good dietary source of chromium because it is a whole grain. Good sources do not include refined grains (such as pasta), fruits, and vegetables.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 175
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

32. Apart from lowering dietary sodium intake, dietary changes that may help decrease high blood pressure include

a. decreasing intake of dairy products.
b. increasing intake of vegetable protein.
c. increasing intake of calcium and magnesium.
d. replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats.

ANS: C
Dietary changes that may help decrease high blood pressure include increasing intake of calcium and magnesium. This could be accomplished by increasing, rather than decreasing, intake of dairy products. Intake of vegetable versus animal protein and replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats do not decrease blood pressure, although these changes may have other health benefits.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Pages 176-177
TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological integrity | Client Needs: Health promotion and maintenance

33. A wife who blames her high blood pressure on her husband's preference for salty foods is an example of

a. denial.
b. chaining.
c. reframing.
d. projection.

ANS: D
A wife who blames her high blood pressure on her husband's preference for salty foods is an example of projection. She is projecting her unhealthy behaviors on her husband instead of taking responsibility for her own health. Denial would be ignoring the problem. Chaining would be associating one behavior with another. Reframing would be replacing negative expectations and associations with positive ones.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 177
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychological integrity