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Period 3: The Revolution and A New Nation (1754-1800)
Terms in this set (44)
Seven Years' War (French and Indian War)
War fought in the colonies from 1754 to 1763 between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio River Valley area. The English won the war and the Peace of Paris was negotiated in 1763. (p. 70)
Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
Peace of Paris (1763)
Ended French and Indian War
Britain gained all of French Canada & all territory south of Canada & east of the Mississippi River.
France & Spain lost their West Indian colonies.
Britain gained Spanish Florida.
Spain gained French territory west of the Mississippi, including control of the port city of New Orleans.
Royal proclamation of 1763 designed to protect Indian tribes by setting a boundary at the peaks of the Appalachian Mountains beyond which no western white settlement was to take place
Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottawa chief. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The war was a failure for the Indians in that it did not drive away the British, but the widespread uprising prompted the British government to modify the policies that had provoked the conflict.
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
These were vigilante groups active in the 1760s and 1770s in the western parts of North and South Carolina. They violently protested high taxes and insufficient representation in the colonial legislature.
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies. These resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
1773 act which eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. Led to the Boston Tea Party.
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses.
Committees of Correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
1st Continental Congress
On September 1774, delegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. After debating, the delegates passed a resolution backing Mass. in its struggle. Decided to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britain until the Intolerance Act was canceled.
2nd Continental Congress
1)Sent the "Olive Branch Petition" 2)Created a continental army with George Washington as the leader. 3)Agreed to write a formal letter declaring their independence from England.
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
A government in which the people rule by their own consent.
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Treaty of Paris 1783
Treaty Between England and the Colonies , formally ended the American Revolutionary War
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Federal order that divided the Northwest Territory into smaller territories and created a plan for how the territories could become states. Banned slavery in the northwest territory
Rebellion l of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population leaving smaller states with less power
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for a unicameral congress with equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population.
opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
Supporters of the U.S. Constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption. Favored a strong centralized government.
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Bill of Rights, 1791
Collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed to assuage the fears of Anti-Federalists
Hamilton's Financial Plan
The government would take the debt of the nations and the states debt, make a national bank, and tax higher (which was the only one that did not pass thru congress)
Treaty signed in 1794 between the U.S. And Britain in which Britain sought to improve trade relations and agreed to withdraw from forts in the northwest territory; not very effective or popular with the people
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
1796 speech by Washington urging US to maintain neutrality and avoid permanent alliances with European nations
A 1797 incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomats
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
passed by Federalists, signed by President Adams;; increased waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years, empowered president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens, & made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
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