WHII SOL 2019-2 full year (religion)
Terms in this set (231)
Written during the time being studied.
Written later to describe a period of time.
Emphasize human made features such as national borders and cities.
Emphasize the natural features of land and water.
Various methods of representing the round world on a flat map.
founder of Buddhism, aka Buddha
Four Noble Truths
name of Buddha's teachings
Noble Eightfold Path
rules to follow in Buddhism to stop wrong desire
peaceful feeling of joy
The Awakened one
savior, incarnation of God
disciple of Jesus who betrayed Jesus
part of the Bible containing stories of Jesus, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
sacred book of Christianity
oldest Hindu scripture
universal spirit behind everything
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
three parts of the Trimurti (holy trinity)
destroys one cycle of life so that a new cycle can begin
keeps order in the universe
holy book of Islam
center of Islamic civilization
event when Muhammad ascended to heaven
follower of Muhammad; someone who surrenders to God
the one god
"overlord"; title of Ottoman rulers
Five Pillars of Islam
month in which Muslims fast
pilgrimage to Mecca
founder of Islam; messenger of Allah
building in which Muslims worship
founder (patriarch) of Judaism
"the law" of the Jewish faith; first five books of the Hebrew Bible
laws to live by that were given to Moses
Jewish prayer book
"place of assembly" for Jews
belife in one deity
warrior for Islam
follower of Osman (also called Othman)
Timur the Lame
conqueror from Samarkand, who burned Baghdad crushing Ottoman forces at Battle of ankara in 1402, halting expansion of Ottoman Empire
aka Mehmed the Conqueror, who conquered Constantinople in 1453, and opened it to citizens of many religions and backgrounds
capital of the Ottoman Empire, now known as Istanbul
Sulleyman the Lawgiver
aka Suleyman the Magnificent; great military leader, created code of law, simplified system of taxation, reduced government bureaucracy
Ottoman policy of taking boys form christian peoples as Muslim soldiers
member of elite fighting force comprised of christian slaves in the Ottoman Empire
one who does not belive in a certain religion religion; those do not belive in Islam
most successful warrior and "founder" of Ottomans
conquered by the Ottomans; primarily Greek Orthodox
per capita tax on non-Muslim adult males to freely worship
Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled persia between 16th and 18th centuries
hereditary monarch of Iran
founder of Shi'a Islam; known as religious tyrant who killed any citizen who didn't convert
helped create Safavid culture
Safavid capital that was a showplace for artisans
Normads who lived in the Indian subcontinent and established a powerful empire there
brilliant general who laid the foundation for the Mughal Empire
"Greatest One," grandson of Babur; rules with wisdom and tolerance
nonviolent religous group whose belifes blend elements of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism
created Taj Mahal as a shrine to his wife
shrine built by Shah Jahan, which is located in Agra and made out of marble and precious stones
despotic ruler, whose strict laws led to divisions and decentraliztion of government in the Mughal Empire
doctrine (belief) or attitude that is concerned primarily with human beings and their values, capacities and achievements
wordly and concerned with now
person who financially supports the arts
technique that shows three diamensions on a flat surface
native or efery day language
idependent state consisting of a city and surrounding land and villages
Justification by faith
Martin Luther's concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation
pardon sold by Catholic Church to reduce one's punishment
formal exclusion from membership or patricipation in a church
disagreement with, or denial of, the basic teachings of a religion
government headed by religious leaders or a leader regarded as a god
doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by God
member of a protestant group that belived in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and believed in the separation of church and state
school for educating pricests
ornate, dramatic artistic style, sparked by the Catholic Reformation, which developed in Europe in the 1550s
members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius Loyal
church court set up to stamp out heresy
Council of Trent
meeting of Roman Catholic leaders called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by Protestant reformers
Swiss priest who led the Protestant movement in Switzerland
Peace of Augsburg
disagreement with, or denial of, the basic teachings of a religion
the selling of offical positions in the meieval Roman Catholic Church
Person who makes maps
Sailing completely around something, such as the world
Middle section of the triangular trade in which enslaved Africans were beought by ship to the Americas
The global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the americas
A Spanish conqueror or soldier in the Americas
The transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas
A business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods thatn they bought
Balance of Trade
Difference in value between what a nation imports and what it exports over a period of time
A land controlled by another nation
Profits paid to investors
System by which goods and services are produced and distributed to meet people's needs
Sell to other countries
Buy from other countries
Buying or selling of goods in large amounts over long distances
Early industrial labor system in which workers produced goods at home
Ancient civilization (1200-1500AD) that was located in the Andes in Peru
Ancient civilization (1200-1521AD) that was located in what is present-day Mexico City
ruler has total power
advisor to Louis XIII
supporters of Charles I
Centralization of power
all power rests in one place or under a single authority
form of government in which the monarch's powers are limited by a constitution
theory in which rulers believe they are God's representatives on Earth
Edict of Nantes
document that granted religious freedom to the Huguenots
Ruling family of England
Ruling family of France
Frederick the Great
bloodless overthrow of James II
right of people to be safe from unfair imprisonment
period of rapidly growing prices
first Stuart king of England
powerful chief minister for Louis XIV
policy of Peter the Great
Ruling family of Prussia
period during the reign of Charles II of England
supporters of Oliver Cromwell
Ruling family of Russia
nothing can be known for certain
Ruling family of Spain; also ruling gamily of Austria
Treaty of Westphalia
treaty that ended the 30 Years' war
Spanish painter, whose works distorted human figures and depicted deep Catholic faith
Spanish painter, whose works depicted court life
Spanish writer, who wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha
Don Quixote de la Mancha
novel written by Cervantes and considered birth of the modern European novel
Dutch painter, who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus
Dutch painter, best known for portraits and women doing familiar activities
Empress of Austria
Thirty Years' War
conflict between Catholics and Protestants fought in Germany, Bohemia, and Austria
Seven Years' War
war involving all European powers over territory; known as the French and Indian War in the New World
English Bill of Rights
document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament
English legislative body
Religious belief that says God created the world and lets it run itself by natural law.
Earth orbits the Sun and rotates on its axis.
Work written by Voltaire.
the social contract
Work written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Determined that planets move in elliptical orbits.
Determined that heart pumps blood, which circulates through body.
Ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe.
Intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought.
Discovered gravity, laws of motion, calculus.
Two Treatises on Government
Work written by John Locke.
An agreement between rulers and the people.
Work written by Thomas Hobbes.
Planets revolve around the sun.
Believed that people are born selfish and need a strong central authority.
Determined air is made of gases.
Baron de Montesquieu
Believed government should have separation of powers.
On the Spirit of Laws
Work written by Montesquieu.
Believed natural rights of the Enlightenment should extend to women.
separation of powers
Theory in which government power divided equally among three branches.
Determined how materials burn.
Determined how materials burn.
Believed in freedom of eligion; separation of church and state.
Discovered plant cells; coined term "cells".
Earth centered view of the universe.
Believed that men have inalienable rights, which government cannot abuse.
Built the first telescope; determined that other planets have moons.
A law based on reason that applies to all people.
The Declaration of Independence
Work written by Thomas Jefferson.
Government should be a contract between rulers and people.
Believed all people have a right to lifek liverty, and property.
Published the first Encyclopedia.
Complied first comperhensive English dictionary.
Botanist who developed first successful classification system for living things.
Popular 18th century toy that mimicked way planets move around the sun.
Religious group who wanted grater reforms of the English church.
English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620.
Religious group known as the Society of Friends; hated violence and supported humanitarian causes.
Think coherently and logically; draw conclusions from facts.
Approach to scientific research developed by Isaac Newton.
Believed in reform of the criminal justice system.
balance of power
equal power among nations.
Forcibe closing of ports.
A formal agreement especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of church affairs.
In the first half of the 19th century a European-mainly wealthy landowners and nobles- who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe.
A sudden, bloodless seizure of political power in a nation.
In spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in Latin America to spanish parents.
A member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attackeson enemy troops occupying his/her country.
Conservative members of Prussia's landowning class.
Hereditary right of a monarch to rule.
In the first half of the 19th century, a European- mainly middle-class business leaders and merchants-who wanted to give more political power to elected parliaments.
French government-run public schools.
Economic policy in which nations seek an increase of power by selling more finished goods to their colonies than the raw materials they bought from them.
persons of mixed European and Indian ancestry.
Persons of mixed European and African ancestry.
A state having its own independent government.
Political system in which a person's greatest loyalty is to the nation, not the king.
people in Latin America born in Spain.
Direct vote of the people.
People who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people.
Politics of reality.
Practice of burning fields and killing livestock to keep advancing army from having food.
Radical Parisian wage earners who wanted greater voice in governmetn.
Nobles and others who left France during peasant uprisings and who hoped to come back the old system.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Document that guaranteed rights such as liberty and property to all.
Replaced National assembly; took away most of king's power.
Committee of Public Safety
Led by Robespierre; enemies of the republic were executed.
Reign of Terror
The period of Robespierre's rule; period of killing and unrest.
Revolutionary leader who tried to wipe out every trace of France's past monarchy and nobility.
Machine for beheading people.
Nickname for the guillotine.
Social and political system of France in the 1770's.
Three large social classes.
Made up of clergy.
Made up of rich nobles.
Made up of bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers.
King of France at the time of the French Revolution.
Queen of France; wife of Louis XIV; daughter of Maria-Theresa, empress of autria.
French prison that became known as a symbol of the royal abuse of power.
Assembly of reopresentatives from all three estates.
Tennis Court Oath
Pledge made by members of France's National Assembly in which they vowed to continue meeting until a new constitution was drawn up.
Radical political organization.
Radical, revolutionary journalist.
Reign of Terror
Period during which Robespierre ruled.
Former slave who became a general and led rebel forces against French to gain independence for Hispaniola, which became independent country of Haiti.
Catholic priest, who led independence movement in Mexico.
Venezuelan Creole, known as the Liberator, who helped drive spanish out of northern/eastern part of South America.
Jose de San Martin
Revolutionary leader, born in Argentina, who freed Chile and joined Bolivar to free Peru.
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