Most sex differences in mental abilities and personality traits are small to moderate. Girls tend to be advantaged in language development, reading and writing, counting, arithmetic computation, mastery of basic math concepts, and emotional understanding. Boys are better at certain spatial skills and at complex mathematical reasoning. Biological factors, adult encouragement, and learning opportunities contribute to sex differences in language, spatial, and math skills. Girls' greater emotional sensitivity is largely due to gender-stereotyped expectations and child-rearing practices. The higher rate of depression in adolescent girls in industrialized nations largely results from stressful life events and gender-typed coping styles. Gender intensification in early adolescence may strengthen girls' passivity and dependency, which interfere with their ability to cope with challenges. Androgen hormones contribute to greater physical aggression in males but may exert their effects indirectly by influencing activity level, emotional reactions, or dominance. Parents and teachers are more likely to encourage physical aggression in boys while suppressing it in girls—lessons reinforced by gender- segregated peer groups. Authoritative - Upbeat mood; high self-esteem, self-control, task persistence, academic achievement, and cooperativeness.
Authoritarian - Anxious, withdrawn and defiant, aggressive behavior; unhappy mood; hostile when frustrated; academic achievement difficulties.
Permissive - Impulsive, disobedient, and rebellious; overly demanding and dependent on adults; poor task persistence and academic achievement.
Uninvolved - Deficits in attachment, cognition, play, and emotional and social skills.
13th EditionLori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley