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Bio: CH. 40
Terms in this set (53)
overall rate of energy use
what is anaerobic glycolysis good for?
short bursts of intense activity because it is fast
in what order does the body break down stuff?
carbs, then fat, then protein
essential amino acid
cannot be synthesized, must be ingested
organic molecules required in small amounts
How many essential vitamins are there?
what does the foregut involve? (3)
mouth, esophagus, stomach
what does the midgut involve? (1)
where does the most nutrient absorption take place?
what does the hindgut consist of? (2)
large intestine, rectum
what occurs in the large intestine?
water and inorganic molecule absorption
waves of smooth muscle contraction and relaxation
where does digestion begin
what enzymes are in the mouth? (2)
what does amylase break down?
what does lipase break down?
what is the purpose of the gizzard?
another compartment for food breakdown
what are the walls of the gizzard like?
thick and muscular
who has a gizzard? (4)
birds, alligators, crocodiles, earthworms
what is broken down in the stomach (2)
proteins and lipids
what is the primary stomach enzyme
what does pepsin do?
breaks down proteins into amino acids
what does the pancreas do? (3)
secrete hormones into the blood, produces digestive enzymes, and produces bicarbonate ions to neutralize stomach acid
what does the liver produce?
what is the purpose of bile?
breaks large fats into smaller lipid droplets (emulsification)
what does the gallbladder do?
highly folded inner surface of small intestine
what is the highly folded surface of villi called?
what do the villi do?
increase surface area for absorption
what is at the base of villi?
a cell of the intestinal lining
how are cells in the small intestine connected?
how are nutrient molecules moved?
they are co-transported into cells with Na+ ions
what things are lipid soluble? (2)
fatty acids and glycerol
what does it mean that they are lipid soluble?
can readily diffuse across the plasma membrane
what does it mean if the body absorbs excess water?
central space through which gut contents travel
contract to shrink lumen
contracts to shorten segments of the gut
what NS are circular and longitudinal muscles a part of?
two ways to measure metabolism
kcal/hr or O2 consumption
what type of animal has high metabolic rate?
what size animal have higher metabolic rates?
larger (but lower relative rate)
how many essential amino acids?
where do most amino acids come from?
proteins degraded by.. (2)
pepsin and trypsin
where is the Na+ concentration highest?
in the lumen
so where is Na+ driven?
driven inside the enterocyte
how does fat get absorbed?
passively diffuses across PM
what does fat need to enter the blood
is foregut/hindgut fermentation in humans?
no; in herbivorous animals
how are AAs and vitamins obtained in foregut/hindgut fermentation?
what do dead bacteria provide?
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