Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
support systems and locomotion
Terms in this set (54)
Muscles contract against fluid filled compartments causing movement.
External skeleton that supports muscle contraction, prevents soft tissue from drying out, and provides protective armour
Ex:molluscs(calcium carbonate) and crustaceans(chitin)
Primarily made of bone and cartilage (doesn't limit space for internal organs and supports greater weight), protects internal organs, can grow with the animal, and allows flexibility
Ex:exchinoderms and vertebrates
What are the two parts of the human skeleton?
Axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton
Lies in the midline of the body and consists of the Skull, ribs, sternum, and vertebrae
Consists of the bones within the pectoral and pelvic girdles and the attached limbs
Shoulder. The components include the Arm and hand which are loosely attached by ligaments. Allows for flexibility
Consists of two heavy, large coxal bones (hipbones) that are anchored to the sacrum. Together they form the hollow pelvic cavity. Includes leg and foot. Provides strength and supports the body against the pull of gravity
Immature bone cells that form bones from cartilage cells when calcium salts are deposited in the matrix
Fibrous connective tissue is converted to bone. AKA direct ossification
Ex: facial bones
If the cartilaginous growth plate separating the primary and secondary ossification centers remain growth is possible. Once the growth plate is converted to bone the primary and secondary ossification centers grow into each other and fusion takes place. The cartilaginous models are now bones.
What controls the rate of bone growth?
Growth hormones and sex hormones
Break down bone, remove worn cells, and deposit calcium in the blood helping to maintain the blood calcium level and contributing to homeostasis. Osteoclasts work with osteoblasts to heal broken bones(osteoclasts break down bone and osteoblasts build new bone at the site of damage)
Yellow bone marrow
Consists of fat. Located in the medullary cavity
Red bone marrow
Specialized tissue that produces red blood cells. Located in the spaces of spongy bone
Formed by cranium and facial bones.
An opening at the base of the skull that allows the spinal cord to pass through forming the brain stem. Located in the occipital portion
Supports the head, protects the spinal cord/roots of spinal nerves, and serves as and anchor for other bones. Consists of the cervical/neck(7), thoracic/thorax(12), lumbar/small of the back(5), scaral/sacrum(5 FUSED bones), and the coccyx/tailbone(4 FUSED bones)
The bones of the cranium contain hollow spaces aligned with mucus called sinuses.Sinuses lighten the load and determine the sound of your voice.
Soft spots made of bones that havent ossified yet in a baby's skull that help the head fit through the birth canal. Usually close by the age of 2
Protects the heart and lungs and assists breathing. Consists of 12 pairs of ribs. 7 are true ribs that correct directly to the sternum. 5 are false ribs that's do not connects directly to the sternum. 3 of the false ribs indirectly connect to the sternum through cartilage and the other two are called floating ribs which assist the heart and lungs.
What two factors affect bone thickness?
Exercise and hormone balances
Located at the ends of the bone, has a criss-cross lattice structure that reinforcesthe bone ends, may contain red bone marrow, designed for strength, and consists of many bony bars and plates separated by spaces
A thin sheet of fibrous material that covers and protects the bone
Occurs on the outside of most of the length of the bone, contains many osteons
Comprises plates of connective tissue located at the outer edges of the bone. Provides shock absorption and helps in bone growth. During prenatal development cartilage serves as models for future bones
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
Increases calcium levels so it also increases the work of osteoclasts
Decreases calcium levels, stops activity of osteoclasts
Concave and convex shock absorbers in the vertebral column. Primary curvatures are already present when born and secondary curvatures appear later. Hunch back and scoliosis are due to abnormal curvatures. The normal amount of curvatures is four
Thinning of bones as we age if proper precautions are not taken
How many carpals do humans have?
How many metacarpals do humans have?
How many phalanges do humans have?
3 per finger except for the thumb which only has 2
How many tarsals to humans have?
7 (only one receives the weight and passes it on to the heel and ball of the foot)
Cells found within the lacunae of osteons
Cavity inside of long bone that consists of yellow bone marrow. Bounded at the sides by compact bone and at the ends by spongy bone. Beyond the spongy bone there is a thin shell of compact bone and finally a layer of hyaline cartilage
Arranged in concentric circles around central canals in compact bone. Separated by a matrix of collagen fibers and deposits of calcium and phosphorus salts
Contain blood vessels and nerves located in compact bone
Forms the forehead and ridges where eyebrows are located
Extend across the sides of the head
Below the parietal bones, has an opening for the ear, contains the temples
Forms the base of the skull
Lower jaw, only freely moveable portion of the skull, allows us to chew, forms the chin, contains teeth sockets(alveolar processes)
Contains tooth sockets (alveolar processes), forms the upper jaw and a portion of the hard plate
Form the bridge of the nose
Composed of fibrocartilage between the vertebrae. Act as a padding to prevent vertebrae from grinding against one another and absorb the shock caused by running, jumping, walking, etc. Allow the vertebrae to bend
Single long bone in the upper arm, has a rounded head that fits into the socket of the scapula. Socket is shallow and smaller than the head for flexibility purposes
Inside of ankle, contains a ridge known as the shin
Outside of ankle
Form arch of your foot. Longitudinal arch from the heel to the toes and a transverse arch across the foot. Provide a stable, springy base for the body but if tissues that bind the metatarsals together weaken flat foot will occur
Recommended textbook explanations
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Laboratory Manual for Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Terry R. Martin
Sets found in the same folder
bio epithelial tissue
Ch 41 animal nutrition
body fluid regulation and excretion/muscular system
human muscular system
Sets with similar terms
A&P chapter 7-8 Skeletal system
bone overall notes
A&P chap 7 - bone structure and function…
Other sets by this creator
parabola, hyperbola, and ellipse equations
Other Quizlet sets
B103.1 Firefighter Accountability
History exam 4
Module 2 Exam