Family and Consumer Science Praxis

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (143)

Cold Storage Chart
Product Refrigerator
40 °F (4.4 ºC) Freezer
0 °F (-17.7 ºC)
1. Eggs
Fresh, in shell 3 to 5 weeks Do not freeze
2. Raw yolks & whites 2 to 4 days 1 year
3. Hard cooked 1 week Does not freeze well
4. Liquid pasteurized eggs, egg substitutes
Opened 3 days Does not freeze well
Unopened 10 days 1 year
5. Mayonnaise, Commercial
Refrigerate after opening 2 months Do not freeze
6. Frozen Dinners & Entrees
Keep frozen until ready to heat — 3 to 4 months
7. Store-prepared (or homemade) egg, chicken, ham, tuna, & macaroni salads 3 to 5 days Does not freeze wel
8. Hot dogs
Opened package 1 week 1 to 2 months
Unopened package 2 weeks 1 to 2 months
9. Luncheon meat
Opened package 3 to 5 days 1 to 2 months
Unopened package 2 weeks 1 to 2 months
10. Bacon & Sausage
Bacon 7 days 1 month
11. Sausage, raw — from chicken, turkey, pork, beef 1 to 2 days 1 to 2 months
12. Smoked breakfast links, patties 7 days 1 to 2 months
13. Hard sausage — pepperoni, jerky sticks 2 to 3 weeks 1 to 2 months
14. Summer sausage
labeled "Keep Refrigerated"
Opened 3 weeks 1 to 2 months
Unopened 3 months 1 to 2 months
15. Corned beef, in pouch with pickling juices 5 to 7 days Drained, 1 month
16. Ham, canned
labeled "Keep Refrigerated"
Opened 3 to 5 days 1 to 2 months
Unopened 6 to 9 months Do not freeze
17. Ham, fully cooked
Vacuum sealed at plant, undated, unopened 2 weeks 1 to 2 months
Vacuum sealed at plant, dated, unopened "Use-By" date on package 1 to 2 months
18. Whole 7 days 1 to 2 months
Half 3 to 5 days 1 to 2 months
Slices 3 to 4 days 1 to 2 months
19. Hamburger & stew meat 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 months
20. Ground turkey, veal, pork, lamb, & mixtures of them 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 months
21. Steaks 3 to 5 days 6 to 12 months
Chops 3 to 5 days 4 to 6 months
Roasts 3 to 5 days 4 to 12 months
22. Variety meats — tongue, liver, heart, kidneys, chitterlings 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 months
23. Pre-stuffed, uncooked pork chops, lamb chops, or chicken breasts stuffed with dressing 1 day
Soups & Stews
24. Vegetable or meat added 3 to 4 days 2 to 3 months
25. Chicken or turkey, whole 1 to 2 days 1 year
26. Chicken or turkey, pieces 1 to 2 days 9 months
27. Giblets 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 months
28. Cooked meat & meat casseroles 3 to 4 days 2 to 3 months
29. Gravy & meat broth 3 to 4 days 2 to 3 months
30. Fried chicken 3 to 4 days 4 months
31. Cooked poultry casseroles 3 to 4 days 4 to 6 months
32. Poultry pieces, plain 3 to 4 days 4 months
33. Poultry pieces in broth, gravy 3 to 4 days 6 months
34. Chicken nuggets, patties 3 to 4 days 1 to 3 months
35. Pizza, cooked 3 to 4 days 1 to 2 months
36. Stuffing, cooked 3 to 4 days 1 month
For the most successful implementation of HACCP, it should be applied from farm to table -- starting on the farm and ending with the individual preparing the food, whether in a restaurant or home. On the farm, there are actions that can be taken to prevent contamination from occurring, such as monitoring feed, maintaining farm sanitation, and practicing good animal health management practices.

In the plant, contamination must be prevented during slaughter and processing. Once meat and poultry products leave the plant, there should be controls in place during transportation, storage and distribution.

In retail stores, proper sanitation, refrigeration, storage and handling practices will prevent contamination. Finally, in restaurants, food service and homes, food handlers must store, handle and cook foods properly to ensure food safety.

1. Conduct a hazard analysis to identify potential hazards that could occur in the food production process.

2. Identify the critical control points (CCPs) -- those points in the process where the potential hazards could occur and can be prevented and/or controlled.

3. Establish critical limits for preventive measures associated with each CCP. A critical limit is a criterion that must be met for each CCP. Where appropriate, critical limits may reflect relevant FSIS regulations and FDA tolerances.

4. Establish CCP monitoring requirements to ensure each CCP stays within its limit. Monitoring may require materials or devices to measure or otherwise evaluate the process at CCPs.

5. Establish corrective actions if monitoring determines a CCP is not within the established limits. In case a problem occurs, corrective actions must be in place to ensure no public health hazard occurs.

6. Establish effective recordkeeping procedures that document the HACCP system is working properly. Records should document CCP monitoring, verification activities and deviation records.

7. Establish procedures for verifying that the HACCP system is working properly. Verification procedures may include reviewing the HACCP plan, CCP records, critical limits as well as conducting microbial sampling. Both plant personnel and FSIS inspectors will conduct verification activities.
1. SEPARATE to prevent cross contamination. Cross contamination is the transfer of harmful bacteria from uncooked food products (e.g. raw meat, fish, and poultry) or unclean people, countertops, and kitchen equipment to ready-to-eat foods (e.g., fruits, vegetables, deli meats/cheeses, and prepared or cooked foods).

2. Prevent cross contamination when grocery shopping.
Physically separate raw meat, fish and poultry to prevent their juices from dripping onto other foods. This can be done by:
3. Segregating raw meat, fish and poultry on one side of the shopping cart.
4. Placing raw meat, fish and poultry in separate plastic bags (e.g. one bag for chicken, one bag for fish, etc.).
5. Designate reusable bags for grocery shopping only. Reusable bags for raw meat, fish, or poultry should never be used for ready-to-eat products.
6. Frequently wash bags. Cloth bags should be washed in a machine and machine dried or air-dried. Plastic-lined bags should be scrubbed using hot water and soap and air-dried.
7. Separate raw meat, fish and poultry in disposable plastic bags before putting them in a reusable bag
8. Check that both cloth and plastic-lined reusable bags are completely dry before storing.
9. Prevent cross contamination when storing food in the refrigerator.
10. In the refrigerator, store raw meats, fish, and poultry below ready-to-eat and cooked foods.
11. When thawing frozen raw meat, fish and poultry, put the food in a plastic bag or on a plate on the lowest shelf to prevent juices from dripping onto other foods.
12. After thawing in the refrigerator, food should remain safe and of good quality for a few days before cooking. Food thawed in the refrigerator can be refrozen without cooking, although quality may be impacted. See Chill section for other methods for thawing.
13. Prevent cross contamination when handling, preparing, and serving food.
14. Thoroughly wash your hands before and after handling different foods, after using the bathroom, and anytime they can become contaminated.
15. Use separate cutting boards for meat and produce. Alternatively, prepare produce first, then meat.
16. Wash and rinse cutting board, knives, and preparation area after cutting raw meat, fish or poultry. These items can be sanitized after cleaning.
17. Use a clean serving plate to serve cooked meat. 18. Do not use the plate that held the raw meat, unless it is washed.
19. Throw away any sauce or dip that has been used to marinade raw meat, fish, or poultry. Do not use this extra sauce as a dip for cooked food unless it is boiled first.
20. COOK food thoroughly and use a thermometer to verify the proper temperature was reached.
21. To determine that the proper temperature was reached, place a food thermometer in the thickest part of the food and allow the it to equilibrate.
22. Make sure it's not touching bone, fat, or gristle.
23. For whole poultry, insert the thermometer into the innermost part of the thigh and wing and the thickest part of the breast.
24. For combination dishes, place the thermometer in the center or thickest portion.
25. Egg dishes and dishes containing ground meat or poultry should be checked in several places.
26. Clean your food thermometer with hot, soapy water before and after each use!
27. Food Thermometers - Why use them? Not only is it important to monitor the refrigerator temperature (chill foods); but using a thermometer is the only reliable way to ensure that a food is properly cooked. When cooking:

28. Color is not a reliable indicator that the food has been cooked to the correct temperature to ensure that foodborne pathogens are destroyed.
29. Determining "doneness" of hamburger cannot be safely done by looking at the brown color of the meat or of chicken by looking that the juices run clear.
30. Time alone as an indicator that the food is cooked properly could result in a potential food safety hazard. Recipes may state "x minutes/pound". However, different thicknesses of a food or ingredients that are used can alter the time needed at a specific temperature to make sure the food has reached the correct temperature to kill all pathogens.
31. Food thermometers come in several types and styles and range in level of technology and price. There is a lot of good information on how to use a thermometer correctly, proper placement, and how to check to see if it is accurate (see Resources- Thermometers).
32. Pop-up temperature devices are commonly found in turkeys or oven roaster chickens. These devices indicate that the food has come to the correct temperature for safety. However, while these devices are reliable, it is recommended that the temperature be checked in several places with a conventional thermometer to ensure proper cooking.

33. CHILL foods promptly. Cold temperatures slow the growth of harmful bacteria. Cold air must circulate to help keep food safe, so do not over fill the refrigerator. Maintain the refrigerator temperature at 41°F or below. Place an appliance thermometer in the rear portion of the refrigerator, and monitor regularly. Maintain the freezer temperature at 0°F or below.

34. Refrigerate and/or freeze meat, poultry, eggs and other perishables as soon as possible after purchasing.
35. Consider using a cooler with ice or gel packs to transport perishable food.
36. Perishable foods, such as cut fresh fruits or vegetables and cooked food should not sit at room temperature more than two hours before putting them in the refrigerator or freezer (one hour when the temperature is above 90°F).
37. There are three safe ways to thaw food: in the refrigerator (see Separate), in cold water, and in the microwave. Food thawed in cold water or in the microwave should be cooked immediately.
38. Submerging the food in cold water. It is important to place the food in a bag that will prevent the water from entering. Check the water every 30 minutes to make sure it is cold. Cook food prior to refreezing.
39. Microwave thawing. Cook food immediately once thawed because some areas of the food may become warm and begin to cook during the thawing process. Cook food prior to refreezing.
40. Cool leftovers quickly by dividing large amounts into shallow containers for quicker cooling in the refrigerator.
1. Broiling-Uses radiant heat from an overhead source to cook foods. The food to be broiled is placed on a preheated metal grate. Radiant heat from overhead cooks the food, while the hot grate marks it with attractive crosshatch marks.

2. Grilling-Although similar to broiling, grilling uses heat source located beneath the cooking surface. Grilled foods are often identified by crosshatch markings.

3. Roasting & Baking-Are the processes of surrounding a food with dry, heated air in a closed environment. The term roasting is usually applied to meats and poultry, while baking is used when referring to fish, fruits, vegetables, starches, breads and pastry items.

4. Sauteing-Uses conduction to transfer heat from a hot sauté pan to food with the aid of a small amount of hot fat. To saute food properly, begin by heating sauté pan on the stove top, then add a small amount of fat. The fat should just cover the bottom of the pan. Heat the fat to the point where it just begins to smoke. The food to be cooked should be as dry as possible when added to the pan to promote browning and to prevent excessive spattering. The heat should be adjusted so that the food cooks thoroughly; it should not be so hot that the outside of the food burns before the inside is cooked.

5. Pan-frying-Pan-frying shares similarities with both sautéing and deep-frying. It is a cooking method in which heat is transferred by conduction from pan to the food, using a moderate amount of fat. Foods are usually coated in breading. This forms a seal that keeps food moist and prevents the hot fat from penetrating the food and causing it to become greasy.

6. Deep-frying-Is a cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat to a food submerged in hot fat; foods to be deep fried are usually first coated in batter or breading. This preserves moisture and prevents the food from absorbing excessive quantities of fat. Foods deep-fried should be uniform size and shape.
Moist-Heat Cooking Methods:
Cooking with moist heat is a processes of applying heat to food by submerging it directly into a hot liquid or by exposing it to steam.

7. Poaching-It is often associated with delicately flavored foods that do not require lengthy cooking times to tenderize them, such as eggs, fruit, or fish. When poaching the food is placed in a liquid held at temperatures between 160F-!80F. The surface of the liquid should show only a slight movement, but no bubbles. Do not allow the liquid to boil, this will cause the food to get stringy and will destroy the delicate foods.

There are two methods of poaching, submersion and shallow poaching. For submerged poaching the liquid covers the food completely. With shallow poaching, the food is placed in just enough liquid to come approximately half-way up the sides. Shallow poaching combines aspects of poaching and steaming.

8. Simmering-Is often associated with foods that need to be tenderized through a long, slow, moist cooking, such as less tender cuts of meat. The food is submerged in a liquid held at temperatures between 185f-205F. As with poaching the liquid used for the simmering has a great effect on the food's flavor.

9. Boiling-Is a moist-heat cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat from a hot (approximately 212*F) liquid to the food submerged in it; the turbulent waters and higher temperatures cook foods more quickly than do poaching or simmering. Most boiled meats are actually simmered. Even hard-boiled eggs are really only simmered. Starches such as pasta and potatoes are among the only types of foods that are truly boiled.

10. Steaming-A moist-heat cooking method in which heat is transferred from steam to the food being cooked by direct contact; the food to be steamed is placed in a basket or rack above a boiling liquid in a covered pan. It is often associated with tender, delicately flavored foods, such as fish and vegetables which do not require long cooking times. Steaming tends to enhance the food's natural flavor and helps retain its nutrients.

11. Braising-Braising is associated with large pieces of meat. Enough liquid is added to come one-third to half-way up the item being cooked.

12. Stewing-Is associated with small pieces of meat. Stewed foods have enough liquid added to cover them completely and are simmered at a constant temperature until tender. Cooking time is generally shorter for stewing than for braising because the main items are smaller.
Measurement devices include scales and weighing systems, thermometers, pressure gages, timers and other precision control components. These instruments are used to analyze ingredients and machines, and to allow manufacturers to perform and duplicate processing procedures without complications. They are also used to monitor existing systems and machinery, whether to log data during product testing or to quantify typical performance statistics. Measurement devices are particularly important during food manufacture, as minor changes in cooking temperature, ingredient ratios and operation times can lead to drastic changes in the finished product.

Preparation and cooking equipment includes conveyor systems, ovens, dispensing machines, mixing and cutting machines, and transport hoses, pipes and tubes. Each food preparation facility is unique, and many preparation systems are custom designed for the required application. However, a wide variety of standard systems are incorporated into the final design, allowing manufacturers to minimize the expense of full-scale customization. Preparation and cooking components require regular maintenance and cleaning to meet accepted industry standards.

Storage and packaging equipment used for the food industry ranges from simple plastic wrapping to vacuum sealing and bottling. Freezers, coolers and chillers help maintain delicate ingredients and temperature sensitive products for future use or sale. Various sealing and packing techniques are used by manufacturers, including shrink wrap, tamper-proof caps, air-tight bags and cardboard boxes. Pallets, racks, bins and drums are also available for large shipments.
Fresh fruits and vegetables, when harvested, continue to undergo chemical changes which can cause spoilage and deterioration of the product. This is why these products should be frozen as soon after harvest as possible and at their peak degree of ripeness.

Fresh produce contains chemical compounds called enzymes which cause the loss of color, loss of nutrients, flavor changes, and color changes in frozen fruits and vegetables. These enzymes must be inactivated to prevent such reactions from taking place.

Enzymes in vegetables are inactivated by the blanching process. Blanching is the exposure of the vegetables to boiling water or steam for a brief period of time. The vegetable must then be rapidly cooled in ice water to prevent it from cooking. Contrary to statements in some publications on home freezing, in most cases blanching is absolutely essential for producing quality frozen vegetables. Blanching also helps to destroy microorganisms on the surface of the vegetable and to make some vegetables, such as broccoli and spinach, more compact.

The major problem associated with enzymes in fruits is the development of brown colors and loss of vitamin C. Because fruits are usually served raw, they are not blanched like vegetables. Instead, enzymes in frozen fruit are controlled by using chemical compounds which interfere with deteriorative chemical reactions. The most common control chemical is ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Ascorbic acid may be used in its pure form or in commercial mixtures with sugars.
Drying food is a slow process. In a dehydrator, it takes six or more hours to dry foods. In the oven, it takes eight or more hours. Drying time depends on the type of food, the thickness of the cut, the moisture content of the food and the drying method. Don't speed up the drying time by turning up the oven. You will cook the food on the outside before it dries on the inside. This is called "case hardening." The food may appear dry on the outside but is wet on the inside. It will mold later on in storage.Drying is the process of preserving food by removing water from it. Removing
water prevents decay and the growth of microorganisms. Drying foods (air drying, sun
drying, wind drying, or drying near an open fire) to prevent spoiling has been known
since ancient times.

Salting, especially of meat, is the process of preserving food with salt (and a little
saltpeter). This method draws out moisture that causes decay. Also, most bacteria, fungi,
and other disease-causing organisms cannot survive in such a salty environment. Meat
salted in cold weather (so it does not spoil before the salt has time to take effect), can last
for many years.
Salted meat was often smoked as well, by exposing it to smoke from a wood fire.
In the American colonies, most home properties included a smokehouse where meats
were smoked and stored. The practice of preserving meat with salt was so common in the
1700s that most people ate salted meat at nearly every meal. Salting is a sub category of the drying method. The main difference here is that salt is added to products, mainly meat and fish, to draw out moisture. This lowers the bacteria content and makes food adaptable for later use. Adding salt to animal protein turns it a bit leathery. Popular foods made in this tradition are beef jerky and dry salted cod.
Carbohydrates are the main energy source for the brain. Without carbohydrates, the body could not function properly. Sources include fruits, breads and grains, starchy vegetables and sugars.
Protein is the major structural component of cells and is responsible for the building and repair of body tissues. lean protein sources such as low-fat meat, dairy, beans or eggs.
at is an energy source that when consumed, increases the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins including vitamins A, D, E and K. omega-3-rich foods like fish, walnuts and vegetable-based oils. Omega-3s help with development and growth. Limit intake of saturated fats such as high-fat meats and full-fat dairy. Other smart choices include nuts, seeds and avocado.
Vitamin C is necessary for the synthesis of collagen, which provides structure to blood vessels, bone and ligaments. Rich sources include citrus fruits, strawberries and peppers.
Sodium helps to maintain fluid volume outside of the cells and helps cells to function normally. Keep intake under 2,400 milligrams per day. Potassium maintains fluid volume inside and outside of cells and prevents the excess rise of blood pressure with increased sodium intake. Rich sources include bananas, potatoes and tomatoes. Calcium helps to maintain and build strong bones and teeth. Include three servings of calcium-rich foods per day including milk, low-fat cheese and yogurt.
Water helps to maintain homeostasis in the body and transports nutrients to cells. Water also assists in removing waste products from the body. All beverages and high-moisture foods such as soup and watermelon contain water and count towards your daily water requirement. A
The origin of fashion designing dates as far back as 1826. Charles Frederick Worth is believed to be the first fashion designer of the world, from 1826 to 1895. Charles, who was earlier a draper, set up a fashion house in Paris. It was he who started the tradition of fashion houses and telling his customers what kind of clothing would suit them.

During this period, a number of design houses began to hire the services of artists to develop patterns for garments. Patterns would be presented to the clients, who would then place an order if they liked them. It was during this timeframe that the tradition of presenting patterns to the customers and then stitching them began, instead of the earlier system wherein the finished garments would be presented to them.
In the beginning of the 20th century, new developments in fashion would take place in Paris first, from where they would spread to the rest of the world. New designs of clothes would be born in Paris before they found their way to other parts of the world. In other words, Paris emerged as the 'fashion capital'. 'Fashion' during this period was mostly 'haute couture', exclusively designed for individuals.

Towards the mid-20th century, fashion garments began to be mass-produced. The bulk of production increased, and people began to have more choices of garments. Towards the end of the 20th century, fashion awareness among people increased, and they began choosing clothes for themselves based on comfort and their own style, instead of relying on the trends prevailing in the market.
Clothes were rationed in Britain from 1 June 1941. This limited the amount of new garments people could buy until 1949, four years after the war's end.
Shoppers carefully spent their precious clothing coupons and money on new clothes to make sure their purchases would be suitable across spring, summer and autumn and winter. Despite the restrictions, the war and civilian austerity did not put an end to creative design, commercial opportunism or fashionable trends on the British home front.When Britain went to war in 1939 it seemingly spelt an end for fashion. The people of Britain now had more pressing concerns, such as widely expected air raids and possible German invasion. In many ways war did disrupt and dislocate fashion in Britain. Resources and raw materials for civilian clothing were limited. Prices rose and fashion staples such as silk were no longer available. Purchase tax and clothes rationing were introduced. But fashion survived and even flourished in wartime, often in unexpected ways.. As women were conscripted into industrial work from 1941, factory safety became a big issue. Accidents caused by long hair getting caught in machinery became too common, so headscarves - or turbans, or 'glamour bands' - were adopted by many. Headscarves were a chance to bring a flash of colour and individuality to drab factory overalls. Utility clothing covered a range of dresses, coats, jackets, trousers, shirts, socks, gloves and shoes. Utility ranges were produced for men, women and children.The Utility scheme developed out of a need to make production of civilian clothing in British factories more efficient and to provide price-regulated better quality clothing. Until Utility clothing was introduced, the less well-off had to use the same number of coupons for cheaper garments that might wear out in half the time. Utility fabrics - and clothes made from these materials - gave the public a guarantee of quality and value for their money and coupons.
Check the Fabric Content- Generally, natural fibers (silk, cotton, wool) stand up better than synthetics, but some new synthetics are also worth your consideration, especially for technical or performance wear.
The "Hand" of the Fabric-You can really feel the difference between a good quality wool garment and one with lesser quality fiber content.
self-facing on the front placket, cuffs, and collars. This means that the same silk was used to provide additional thickness to these areas for better drape and strength.
Fabric Grain and Nap-Clothing should be cut along the grain of the fabric (except for bias-cut clothing and a few other exceptions). You can tell the grain by looking closely for the longest line of woven thread. Anyone who sews knows that you have to buy enough fabric (yardage) to ensure that all of the pattern pieces are placed following the grain of the fabric before cutting.Also, look for fabric with an obvious nap (velour, corduroy, velvet, etc.). The nap should run in the same direction on both legs of the pants, both front and back of the top, etc. (Some parts of clothing with a nap, such as waistbands, will most likely run horizontally, not vertically.)
quality of stitching as a test of quality. This includes seams and any top-stitching. If you gently pull a seam from the inside of the garment, you will see a lot of daylight between stitches in a poorly made garment. Better quality garments have more stitches per inch and thus have tighter seams - and thus less of a chance to have the seam come apart. Quality top-stitching should be straight, in matching thread (unless the top-stitching is designed for contrast) and have a high number of stitches per inch. The stitches should lie flat to avoid snags (no loopy stitches).
Seams are straight, neat, sturdy, reinforced.
Patterns line up at the seams
Extra fabric in the seams and hems to allow for tailoring as your body changes (because, let's be honest, they do change!)
After multiple washes and wears, the garment holds its shape
Fabric choice is suitable for the kind of garment
Tailoring - the presence and appropriate locations of darts and yokes in fabrics without 'give'
Presence of facing and interfacings to create sturdiness
Presence of linings which protect seams, protects the fabric and provides a neater silhouette on the body
Inclusion of extra buttons and notions like thread, sequins, beading, etc. that we can use to mend the garment later on
Visible high sewing stitch counts - the tighter stitching means stronger and more flexible clothing
Higher quality notions - for example, metal zippers instead of plastic, Mother of Pearl buttons instead of plastic buttons
Back tack - backward stitch(es) to anchor tacking or basting
Backstitch - a sturdy hand stitch for seams and decoration
Basting stitch (US) - for reinforcement or for temporarily holding fabric in place (same as Tack)
Blanket stitch - used to finish an unhemmed blanket
Blind stitch (or hemstitch) - a type of slip stitch used for inconspicuous hem
Buttonhole stitch - for reinforcing buttonholes and preventing cut fabric from raveling
Chain stitch - hand or machine stitch for seams or decoration
Cross-stitch - usually used for decoration, but may also be used for seams
Catch stitch (also 'flat' & 'blind' -catch stitch) a flat looped stitch used in hemming
Back tacking rases
Darning stitch - for repairing holes or worn areas in fabric or knitting
Embroidery stitch - one or more stitches forming a figure of recognizable look
Hemstitch (Hemming stitch) - decorative technique for embellishing the hem of clothing or household linens.
Overcast stitch
Pad stitch - secures two or more layers of fabric together and provide firmness
Pick stitch - a hand stitch that catches only a few threads on the wrong side of the fabric, difficult to produce nicely so typically used for hemming high quality garments
Running stitch - a hand stitch for seams and gathering
Sailmakers stitch
Slip stitch - a form of blind stitch for fastening two pieces of fabric together from the right side without the thread showing
Tack (UK, also baste or pin), quick, temporary stitching intended to be removed
Tent stitch - diagonal embroidery stitch at a 45-degree angle
Topstitch - used on garment edges such as necklines and hems, helps facings stay in place and gives a crisp edge
Whipstitch - for protecting edges

WHEN TO USE IT: Stable fabrics / fabrics that don't fray easily. Something that may not be washed or worn a lot is best. It is the simplest of seam finishes, and requires no sewing.So if you can get away with just this, why not?! The zig zag edge helps in preventing the fabric from fraying.

WHEN TO USE IT: Any type of fabric, really (except for sheers and really delicate fabrics - they may shred).

WHEN TO USE IT: light to medium weight woven fabrics. May be too bulky for heavier fabrics.

WHEN TO USE IT: Sheer/lightweight/delicate fabrics. A french seam completely encases the raw edge of the seam allowance, creating a clean and professional finish on a garment where the seam might be visible.

WHEN TO USE IT: In garments that see a lot of stress - like pants and woven shirts. Look at your jeans - I bet you they have flat felled seams! It is a good seam for these types of garments because it is sturdy and durable. Also - this one is seen from the outside of the garment!

WHEN TO USE IT: Many, many different fabrics and garments. Very versatile.

french seams - encases the raw edge of the fabric within another fold of fabric, reduces unraveling of seam edges and contributes to longevity of garment
bias bound seams - raw edges are encased in bias tape
flat-felled seams - a seam made by placing one edge inside a folded edge of fabric, then stitching the fold down
Presence of the blind hem stitch on finer garments hems, like trousers or pencil skirts
Mechanical abrading is used whereby the fabric is passed, dry, over a series of rollers covered with emery paper which rub and break the fibres to produce a soft weathered effect. Also known as emerised, sueded (for heavier fabric types) or peau de peche (suede-like fabrics are not achieved in this way). The process removes shine and softens the handle and color.
Sand-washing, like stone-washing uses the abrasive power of mineral particles in the wash. Being finer, it is generally applied to silk and viscose fabrics and has a similar effect to using sandpaper.
Mercerizing is a shrinkage process which involves passing fabric through a cold solution of 15-20% sodium carbonate, causing the flat ribbon-like cotton fibres to swell in cross-section and contract in length, making it much more lustrous. The process increases strength by as much as 20% and makes the fibres more receptive to dyes.
The earliest 'performance' fabrics were wovens coated with natural oils or wax to keep out water. Increasingly, though, with the benefits of petrochemical technology, the base fabric is used only to act as a stable ground for a layer of plastic. Many of what are called coated fabrics are little more than the coated layer itself. These fabrics are often finished by 'embossing' to give animal skin effects, created much like pile embossing. Polyurethane and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are the most common materials. Companies are reluctant to divulge details of the different chemical treatments that create high gloss, matt or metallic finishes.
Starch, shellac or glue can be applied to the surface of a fabric to give a glazed or polished appearance. The surface is then ironed under pressure. The finish allows resistance to dirt penetration and is often applied to cotton fabrics making them stiff and shiny.
The fabric is made from two fibres, for example polyester and cotton. A pattern effect is achieved by using a screen to force through chemicals which burn away one of the fibres, leaving sheer and opaque areas.
Fabrics can acquire a self-sterilizing quality by applying an antiseptic finish. The fabric remains unaffected by perspiration and can be washed or dry cleaned.
1. Timeliness: Customers want their questions answered quickly and their problem resolved in a timely manner. Be specific about when something will happen and then make sure it happens.

2. Attitude: Attitude is everything. When customers are treated with respect, courtesy and professionalism they are most receptive to having a satisfactory outcome.

3. Empathy: Having empathy to their situation will usually calm down the most irate customer. Always treat others how we would like to be treated.

4. Ownership: Take responsibility for the situation. Even if you cannot fix things yourself, make sure the customer doesn't get bounced around trying to find the right person to help them.

5. Active Listening: Listen first, act second. Only when a customer feels that you have heard what their situation is will they have confidence that you will provide the correct solution. Plus, sometimes we inadvertently leap to an incorrect conclusion on the best solution before we have all the information. This leads to frustrated customers and repeat calls.

6. Expertise: Be knowledgeable about your product or service. If you don't know the answer -- say so, and then quickly get the information from someone who does. Don't simply pass the customer on to someone else without an introduction.

7. Dependability: When you say you are going to do something, do it. Never leave it up to the customer to follow up. Even if you don't have a solution, don't leave the customer hanging with timelines like "as soon as possible". Make a commitment to respond, even if it is to say "we are still working on it". Let the customer know what is being done.
Oral (0-1 years of age): During this stage, the mouth is the pleasure center for development. Freud believed this is why infants are born with a sucking reflex and desire their mother's breast. If a child's oral needs are not met during infancy, he or she may develop negative habits such as nail biting or thumb sucking to meet this basic need.
Anal (1-3 years of age): During this stage, toddlers and preschool-aged children begin to experiment with urine and feces. The control they learn to exert over their bodily functions is manifested in toilet-training. Improper resolution of this stage, such as parents toilet training their children too early, can result in a child who is uptight and overly obsessed with order.
Phallic (3-6 years of age): During this stage, preschoolers take pleasure in their genitals and, according to Freud, begin to struggle with sexual desires toward the opposite sex parent (boys to mothers and girls to fathers). For boys, this is called the Oedipus complex, involving a boy's desire for his mother and his urge to replace his father who is seen as a rival for the mother's attention. At the same time, the boy is afraid his father will punish him for his feelings, so he experiences castration anxiety. The Electra complex, later proposed by Freud's protégé Carl Jung, involves a girl's desire for her father's attention and wish to take her mother's place.
Latency (6-12 years of age): During this stage, sexual instincts subside, and children begin to further develop the superego, or conscience. Children begin to behave in morally acceptable ways and adopt the values of their parents and other important adults.
Genital (12+ years of age): During this stage, sexual impulses reemerge. If other stages have been successfully met, adolescents engage in appropriate sexual behavior, which may lead to marriage and childbirth.
Trust vs. Mistrust

From birth to 12 months of age, infants must learn that adults can be trusted. This occurs when adults meet a child's basic needs for survival.
Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt

As toddlers (ages 1-3 years) begin to explore their world, they learn that they can control their actions and act on their environment to get results. They begin to show clear preferences for certain elements of the environment, such as food, toys, and clothing. A toddler's main task is to resolve the issue of autonomy vs. shame and doubt by working to establish independence. This is the "me do it" stage.
Initiative vs. Guilt

Once children reach the preschool stage (ages 3-6 years), they are capable of initiating activities and asserting control over their world through social interactions and play.
Industry vs. Inferiority

During the elementary school stage (ages 6-12), children face the task of industry vs. inferiority. Children begin to compare themselves with their peers to see how they measure up. They either develop a sense of pride and accomplishment in their schoolwork, sports, social activities, and family life, or they feel inferior and inadequate because they feel that they don't measure up.
Identity vs. Role Confusion

In adolescence (ages 12-18), children face the task of identity vs. role confusion. According to Erikson, an adolescent's main task is developing a sense of self. Adolescents struggle with questions such as "Who am I?" and "What do I want to do with my life?" Along the way, most adolescents try on many different selves to see which ones fit; they explore various roles and ideas, set goals, and attempt to discover their "adult" selves. Adolescents who are successful at this stage have a strong sense of identity and are able to remain true to their beliefs and values in the face of problems and other people's perspectives. When adolescents are apathetic, do not make a conscious search for identity, or are pressured to conform to their parents' ideas for the future, they may develop a weak sense of self and experience role confusion. They will be unsure of their identity and confused about the future. Teenagers who struggle to adopt a positive role will likely struggle to "find" themselves as adults.
Intimacy vs. Isolation

People in early adulthood (20s through early 40s) are concerned with intimacy vs. isolation. After we have developed a sense of self in adolescence, we are ready to share our life with others. However, if other stages have not been successfully resolved, young adults may have trouble developing and maintaining successful relationships with others. Erikson said that we must have a strong sense of self before we can develop successful intimate relationships. Adults who do not develop a positive self-concept in adolescence may experience feelings of loneliness and emotional isolation.
Generativity vs. Stagnation

When people reach their 40s, they enter the time known as middle adulthood, which extends to the mid-60s. The social task of middle adulthood is generativity vs. stagnation. Generativity involves finding your life's work and contributing to the development of others through activities such as volunteering, mentoring, and raising children. During this stage, middle-aged adults begin contributing to the next generation, often through childbirth and caring for others; they also engage in meaningful and productive work which contributes positively to society. Those who do not master this task may experience stagnation and feel as though they are not leaving a mark on the world in a meaningful way; they may have little connection with others and little interest in productivity and self-improvement.
ntegrity vs. Despair

From the mid-60s to the end of life, we are in the period of development known as late adulthood. Erikson's task at this stage is called integrity vs. despair. He said that people in late adulthood reflect on their lives and feel either a sense of satisfaction or a sense of failure. People who feel proud of their accomplishments feel a sense of integrity, and they can look back on their lives with few regrets. However, people who are not successful at this stage may feel as if their life has been wasted. They focus on what "would have," "should have," and "could have" been. They face the end of their lives with feelings of bitterness, depression, and despair.
Level 1: Preconventional

Throughout the preconventional level, a child's sense of morality is externally controlled. Children accept and believe the rules of authority figures, such as parents and teachers. A child with pre-conventional morality has not yet adopted or internalized society's conventions regarding what is right or wrong, but instead focuses largely on external consequences that certain actions may bring.

Stage 1: Obedience -and- Punishment Orientation

Stage 1 focuses on the child's desire to obey rules and avoid being punished. For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished; the worse the punishment for the act is, the more "bad" the act is perceived to be.

Stage 2: Instrumental Orientation

Stage 2 expresses the "what's in it for me?" position, in which right behavior is defined by whatever the individual believes to be in their best interest. Stage two reasoning shows a limited interest in the needs of others, only to the point where it might further the individual's own interests. As a result, concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsic respect, but rather a "you scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours" mentality. An example would be when a child is asked by his parents to do a chore. The child asks "what's in it for me?" and the parents offer the child an incentive by giving him an allowance.

Level 2: Conventional

Throughout the conventional level, a child's sense of morality is tied to personal and societal relationships. Children continue to accept the rules of authority figures, but this is now due to their belief that this is necessary to ensure positive relationships and societal order. Adherence to rules and conventions is somewhat rigid during these stages, and a rule's appropriateness or fairness is seldom questioned.

Stage 3: Good Boy, Nice Girl Orientation

In stage 3, children want the approval of others and act in ways to avoid disapproval. Emphasis is placed on good behavior and people being "nice" to others.

Stage 4: Law-and-Order Orientation

In stage 4, the child blindly accepts rules and convention because of their importance in maintaining a functioning society. Rules are seen as being the same for everyone, and obeying rules by doing what one is "supposed" to do is seen as valuable and important. Moral reasoning in stage four is beyond the need for individual approval exhibited in stage three. If one person violates a law, perhaps everyone would—thus there is an obligation and a duty to uphold laws and rules. Most active members of society remain at stage four, where morality is still predominantly dictated by an outside force.

Level 3: Postconventional

Throughout the postconventional level, a person's sense of morality is defined in terms of more abstract principles and values. People now believe that some laws are unjust and should be changed or eliminated. This level is marked by a growing realization that individuals are separate entities from society and that individuals may disobey rules inconsistent with their own principles. Post-conventional moralists live by their own ethical principles—principles that typically include such basic human rights as life, liberty, and justice—and view rules as useful but changeable mechanisms, rather than absolute dictates that must be obeyed without question. Because post-conventional individuals elevate their own moral evaluation of a situation over social conventions, their behavior, especially at stage six, can sometimes be confused with that of those at the pre-conventional level. Some theorists have speculated that many people may never reach this level of abstract moral reasoning.

Stage 5: Social-Contract Orientation

In stage 5, the world is viewed as holding different opinions, rights, and values. Such perspectives should be mutually respected as unique to each person or community. Laws are regarded as social contracts rather than rigid edicts. Those that do not promote the general welfare should be changed when necessary to meet the greatest good for the greatest number of people. This is achieved through majority decision and inevitable compromise. Democratic government is theoretically based on stage five reasoning.

Stage 6: Universal-Ethical-Principal Orientation

In stage 6, moral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles. Generally, the chosen principles are abstract rather than concrete and focus on ideas such as equality, dignity, or respect. Laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice, and a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws. People choose the ethical principles they want to follow, and if they violate those principles, they feel guilty. In this way, the individual acts because it is morally right to do so (and not because he or she wants to avoid punishment), it is in their best interest, it is expected, it is legal, or it is previously agreed upon. Although Kohlberg insisted that stage six exists, he found it difficult to identify individuals who consistently operated at that level.
Increasing evidence supports the link between lower SES and negative psychological health outcomes, while more positive psychological outcomes such as optimism, self-esteem and perceived control have been linked to higher levels of SES for youth.
Evidence indicates that socioeconomic status affects family stability, including parenting practices and developmental outcomes for children (Trickett, Aber, Carlson, & Cicchetti, 1991).
Resilience is optimized when protective factors are strengthened at all socioecological levels, including individual, family and community levels (Benzies & Mychasiuk, 2009).Poverty is a reliable predictor of child abuse and neglect. Among low-income families, those with family exposure to substance use exhibit the highest rates of child abuse and neglect (Ondersma, 2002).Lower SES has been linked to domestic crowding, a condition that has negative consequences for adults and children, including higher psychological stress and poor health outcomes (Melki, Beydoun, Khogali, Tamim, & Yunis, 2004).Seven in 10 children living with a single mother are low income, compared to less than a third (32 percent) of children living in other types of family structures (Shriberg, 2013).All family members living in poverty are more likely to be victims of violence. Racial and ethnic minorities who are also of lower SES are at an increased risk of victimization (Pearlman, Zierler, Gjelsvik, & Verhoek-Oftedahl, 2004).Maintaining a strong parent-child bond helps promote healthy child development, particularly for children of low SES (Milteer, Ginsburg, & Mulligan, 2012).
Passive Communication

Those who use a passive style of communication often keep their own feelings hidden from others. The goal with this type of communication is to avoid conflict. Rather than risk causing some sort of upset, the Passive Communicator will avoid expressing his or her own opinions and will accept those of others instead.
Aggressive Communication

Aggressive communication has a lot to do with trying to protect one's own ideas and opinions. The Aggressive Communicator is so concerned with having his or her ideas accepted that they often do so at the expense of others. This person tends to look at every situation as if it is a battle, and he or she wants to win.

Passive-Aggressive Communication

While passive communication and aggressive communication are very different from one another, they can actually be combined to create a third communication style. Passive-Aggressive Communicators tend to avoid obvious conflict, but there is still a need to manipulate the situation. In many cases, there is some sort of "payback" given in return for having their opinions overlooked. The individual appears to go along with decisions but does so in order to get revenge later.
Assertive Communication

The most effective communication style is assertive communication. This includes really sharing opinions, as well as advocating for one's own rights. Unlike the Aggressive Communicator, though, this person will not trample on the rights and opinions of others. Assertive Communicators are able to balance a respect for themselves, with a respect for others.
Objectives and Goals-The lesson's objectives must be clearly defined and in line with district and/or state educational standards
Anticipatory Set-Before you dig into the meat of your lesson's instruction, set the stage for your students by tapping into their prior knowledge and giving the objectives a context. In the Anticipatory Set section, you outline what you will say and/or present to your students before the direct instruction of the lesson begins.
Direct Instruction-When writing your lesson plan, this is the section where you explicitly delineate how you will present the lesson's concepts to your students. Your methods of Direct Instruction could include reading a book, displaying diagrams, showing real-life examples of the subject matter, or using props.
Guided Practice-Under your supervision, the students are given a chance to practice and apply the skills you taught them through direct instruction.The Guided Practice activities can be defined as either individual or cooperative learning.
Closure-In the Closure section, outline how you will wrap up the lesson by giving the lesson concepts further meaning for your students. Closure is the time when you wrap up a lesson plan and help students organize the information into meaningful context in their minds.
Independent Practice-Through homework assignments or other independent assignments, your students will demonstrate whether or not they absorbed the lesson's learning goals.Through Independent Practice, students have a chance to reinforce skills and synthesize their new knowledge by completing a task on their own and away from the teacher's guidance
Assessment and Follow-Up-The lesson doesn't end after your students complete a worksheet. The assessment section is one of the most important parts of all.This is where you assess the final outcome of the lesson and to what extent the learning objectives were achieved.

During the second year, your child's growth in length will begin to slow down. On average, a child will grow 8 cm to 13 cm (3 to 5 inches) in length and gain 1.4 kg to 2.3 kg (3 lbs to 5 lbs) between 12 and 24 months of age.


By the end of the second year, your child will probably have reached the following developmental milestones:

using short phrases (2 to 4 words)
understanding what common household objects are for (e.g., spoon, telephone, comb)
following simple instructions
pointing to objects when they are named (e.g., "Where's the dog?")
walking alone
pulling toys behind them and pushing wheeled toys
standing on tiptoe
beginning to run
kicking a ball
scribbling or colouring on a piece of paper
starting to sort objects by colour and shape
imitating the behaviour of others
starting make-believe play
building a block tower (4 blocks or more)
playing with other children (rather than just playing near them)
climbing up and down on furniture (without help)
going up and down the stairs (with support)
Helping your child grow and develop

During the second year, your child will begin to explore their independence. They are beginning to see themselves as a separate person, and will begin to test the limits of their world (and also test your limits as a parent). Although they may be more "clingy" earlier in their second year, this will decrease as the year comes to a close.

Help your child learn through play. At this stage, your child may be interested in make-believe play, having simple stories read to them, listening and dancing to music, sorting objects by colour and shape, pushing or pulling wheeled toys, building block towers, climbing up and down on furniture, moving objects from one container to another, colouring (which will be more like scribbling at this point), and finding hidden objects.

Foster your child's growing independence. Your child wants to be independent, but still needs help to do most things. Let them try to do things on their own, but supervise them closely and be ready to step in if they're getting frustrated or is at risk of hurting themselves.

Be patient. Near the end of the second year, be prepared for the beginning of those "terrible twos" temper tantrums. Stay calm and model the kind of behaviour you'd like your child to learn.
12 - 18 Months
Walk by himself
Pick up small objects, put them on top of one another, and put them in or dump them from containers
Feed herself with a spoon
Say 2 or 3 different words
Point to things or pictures when named

18-24 Months
Walk up and down stairs with her hand held
Put 2 words together ("more juice")
Take off socks and shoes
Copy another child's play
Move his body in time to music
Methods of child assessment can be informal (conducting natural observations, collecting data and children's work for portfolios, using educator and teacher ratings) and formal (using assessment tools such as questionnaires and standardized testing). Both methods are effective and can help inform educators and parents about a child's progress.

Observations can be made with minimal or no intrusion into children's activities. Educators can observe all facets of development, including intellectual, linguistic, social-emotional, and physical development, on a regular basis.
Portfolios are a record of data that is collected through the work children have produced over a period of time. The collection clearly shows the progress of a child's development. Portfolios can be an important tool in helping facilitate a partnership between teachers and parents.
Educator Ratings are useful in assessing children's cognitive and language abilities as well as their social-emotional development. These ratings can be linked to other methods of assessment, such as standardized testing or other assessment tools. (See the next question below.)
Parent Ratings integrate parents into the assessment process. Parents who are encouraged to observe and listen to their child can help detect and target important milestones and behaviors in their child's development.
Standardized Tests are tests created to fit a set of testing standards. These tests are administered and scored in a standard manner and are often used to assess the performance of children in a program.