Family and Consumer Science Praxis
Terms in this set (143)
What are the safety procedures related to equipment and food preparation?
Basics: Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential to prevent foodborne illness. You can't see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four steps of the Food Safe Families campaign to keep food safe:
1. Clean — Wash hands and surfaces often.
2. Separate — Don't cross-contaminate.
3. Cook — Cook to the right temperature.
4. Chill — Refrigerate promptly.
What are the safety procedures related to food preparation and shopping?
1. Purchase refrigerated or frozen items after selecting your non-perishables.
2. Never choose meat or poultry in packaging that is torn or leaking.
3. Do not buy food past "Sell-By," "Use-By," or other expiration dates.
What are the safety procedures related to food preparation and storage?
1. Always refrigerate perishable food within 2 hours—1 hour when the temperature is above 90 °F (32.2 ºC).
2. Check the temperature of your refrigerator and freezer with an appliance thermometer. The refrigerator should be at 40 °F (4.4 ºC) or below and the freezer at 0 °F (-17.7 ºC) or below.
3. Cook or freeze fresh poultry, fish, ground meats, and variety meats within 2 days; other beef, veal, lamb, or pork, within 3 to 5 days.
4. Perishable food such as meat and poultry should be wrapped securely to maintain quality and to prevent meat juices from getting onto other food.
5. To maintain quality when freezing meat and poultry in its original package, wrap the package again with foil or plastic wrap that is recommended for the freezer.
6. Canned foods are safe indefinitely as long as they are not exposed to freezing temperatures, or temperatures above 90 °F. If the cans look ok, they are safe to use.
7. Discard cans that are dented, rusted, or swollen. High-acid canned food (tomatoes, fruits) will keep their best quality for 12 to 18 months; low-acid canned food (meats, vegetables) for 2 to 5 years.
What are the safety procedures related to food preparation?
1. Always wash hands with warm water and soap for 20 seconds before and after handling food.
2. Don't cross-contaminate. Keep raw meat, poultry, fish, and their juices away from other food. 3. After cutting raw meats, wash cutting board, utensils, and countertops with hot, soapy water.
4. Cutting boards, utensils, and countertops can be sanitized by using a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach in 1 gallon of water.
5. Marinate meat and poultry in a covered dish in the refrigerator.
What are the safety procedures related to food preparation and thawing?
1. Refrigerator: The refrigerator allows slow, safe thawing. Make sure thawing meat and poultry juices do not drip onto other food.
2. Cold Water: For faster thawing, place food in a leak-proof plastic bag. Submerge in cold tap water. Change the water every 30 minutes. Cook immediately after thawing.
3. Microwave: Cook meat and poultry immediately after microwave thawing.
What are the safety procedures related to food preparation and cooking?
1. Cook all raw beef, pork, lamb and veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F (62.8 ºC) as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three minutes before carving or consuming. For reasons of personal preference, consumers may choose to cook meat to higher temperatures.
2. Ground meats: Cook all raw ground beef, pork, lamb, and veal to an internal temperature of 160 °F (71.1 ºC) as measured with a food thermometer.
3. Poultry: Cook all poultry to an internal temperature of 165 °F (73.9 °C) as measured with a food thermometer.
What are the safety procedures related to food preparation and serving?
1. Hot food should be held at 140 °F (60 °C) or warmer.
2. Cold food should be held at 40 °F (4.4 ºC) or colder.
3. When serving food at a buffet, keep food hot with chafing dishes, slow cookers, and warming trays. Keep food cold by nesting dishes in bowls of ice or use small serving trays and replace them often.
4. Perishable food should not be left out more than 2 hours at room temperature—1 hour when the temperature is above 90 °F (32.2 ºC).
What are the safety procedures related to food preparation and leftovers?
1. Discard any food left out at room temperature for more than 2 hours—1 hour if the temperature was above 90 °F (32.2 ºC).
2. Place food into shallow containers and immediately put in the refrigerator or freezer for rapid cooling.
3. Use cooked leftovers within 4 days.
4. Reheat leftovers to 165 °F (73.9 °C).
5. Meat and poultry defrosted in the refrigerator may be refrozen before or after cooking. If thawed by other methods, cook before refreezing.
What are the safety procedures related to food preparation and cold storage?
Cold Storage Chart
40 °F (4.4 ºC) Freezer
0 °F (-17.7 ºC)
Fresh, in shell 3 to 5 weeks Do not freeze
2. Raw yolks & whites 2 to 4 days 1 year
3. Hard cooked 1 week Does not freeze well
4. Liquid pasteurized eggs, egg substitutes
Opened 3 days Does not freeze well
Unopened 10 days 1 year
5. Mayonnaise, Commercial
Refrigerate after opening 2 months Do not freeze
6. Frozen Dinners & Entrees
Keep frozen until ready to heat — 3 to 4 months
7. Store-prepared (or homemade) egg, chicken, ham, tuna, & macaroni salads 3 to 5 days Does not freeze wel
8. Hot dogs
Opened package 1 week 1 to 2 months
Unopened package 2 weeks 1 to 2 months
9. Luncheon meat
Opened package 3 to 5 days 1 to 2 months
Unopened package 2 weeks 1 to 2 months
10. Bacon & Sausage
Bacon 7 days 1 month
11. Sausage, raw — from chicken, turkey, pork, beef 1 to 2 days 1 to 2 months
12. Smoked breakfast links, patties 7 days 1 to 2 months
13. Hard sausage — pepperoni, jerky sticks 2 to 3 weeks 1 to 2 months
14. Summer sausage
labeled "Keep Refrigerated"
Opened 3 weeks 1 to 2 months
Unopened 3 months 1 to 2 months
15. Corned beef, in pouch with pickling juices 5 to 7 days Drained, 1 month
16. Ham, canned
labeled "Keep Refrigerated"
Opened 3 to 5 days 1 to 2 months
Unopened 6 to 9 months Do not freeze
17. Ham, fully cooked
Vacuum sealed at plant, undated, unopened 2 weeks 1 to 2 months
Vacuum sealed at plant, dated, unopened "Use-By" date on package 1 to 2 months
18. Whole 7 days 1 to 2 months
Half 3 to 5 days 1 to 2 months
Slices 3 to 4 days 1 to 2 months
19. Hamburger & stew meat 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 months
20. Ground turkey, veal, pork, lamb, & mixtures of them 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 months
21. Steaks 3 to 5 days 6 to 12 months
Chops 3 to 5 days 4 to 6 months
Roasts 3 to 5 days 4 to 12 months
22. Variety meats — tongue, liver, heart, kidneys, chitterlings 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 months
23. Pre-stuffed, uncooked pork chops, lamb chops, or chicken breasts stuffed with dressing 1 day
Soups & Stews
24. Vegetable or meat added 3 to 4 days 2 to 3 months
25. Chicken or turkey, whole 1 to 2 days 1 year
26. Chicken or turkey, pieces 1 to 2 days 9 months
27. Giblets 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 months
28. Cooked meat & meat casseroles 3 to 4 days 2 to 3 months
29. Gravy & meat broth 3 to 4 days 2 to 3 months
30. Fried chicken 3 to 4 days 4 months
31. Cooked poultry casseroles 3 to 4 days 4 to 6 months
32. Poultry pieces, plain 3 to 4 days 4 months
33. Poultry pieces in broth, gravy 3 to 4 days 6 months
34. Chicken nuggets, patties 3 to 4 days 1 to 3 months
35. Pizza, cooked 3 to 4 days 1 to 2 months
36. Stuffing, cooked 3 to 4 days 1 month
What is HACCP and how does it protect consumers?
What is HACCP?
HACCP, or the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, is a process control system that identifies where hazards might occur in the food production process and puts into place stringent actions to take to prevent the hazards from occurring. By strictly monitoring and controlling each step of the process, there is less chance for hazards to occur.
Why is HACCP Important?
HACCP is important because it prioritizes and controls potential hazards in food production. By controlling major food risks, such as microbiological, chemical and physical contaminants, the industry can better assure consumers that its products are as safe as good science and technology allows. By reducing foodborne hazards, public health protection is strengthened.
What are some methods to prevent pathogen food contamination from farm to table?
For the most successful implementation of HACCP, it should be applied from farm to table -- starting on the farm and ending with the individual preparing the food, whether in a restaurant or home. On the farm, there are actions that can be taken to prevent contamination from occurring, such as monitoring feed, maintaining farm sanitation, and practicing good animal health management practices.
In the plant, contamination must be prevented during slaughter and processing. Once meat and poultry products leave the plant, there should be controls in place during transportation, storage and distribution.
In retail stores, proper sanitation, refrigeration, storage and handling practices will prevent contamination. Finally, in restaurants, food service and homes, food handlers must store, handle and cook foods properly to ensure food safety.
1. Conduct a hazard analysis to identify potential hazards that could occur in the food production process.
2. Identify the critical control points (CCPs) -- those points in the process where the potential hazards could occur and can be prevented and/or controlled.
3. Establish critical limits for preventive measures associated with each CCP. A critical limit is a criterion that must be met for each CCP. Where appropriate, critical limits may reflect relevant FSIS regulations and FDA tolerances.
4. Establish CCP monitoring requirements to ensure each CCP stays within its limit. Monitoring may require materials or devices to measure or otherwise evaluate the process at CCPs.
5. Establish corrective actions if monitoring determines a CCP is not within the established limits. In case a problem occurs, corrective actions must be in place to ensure no public health hazard occurs.
6. Establish effective recordkeeping procedures that document the HACCP system is working properly. Records should document CCP monitoring, verification activities and deviation records.
7. Establish procedures for verifying that the HACCP system is working properly. Verification procedures may include reviewing the HACCP plan, CCP records, critical limits as well as conducting microbial sampling. Both plant personnel and FSIS inspectors will conduct verification activities.
what are actions that can lead to cross contamination?
1. SEPARATE to prevent cross contamination. Cross contamination is the transfer of harmful bacteria from uncooked food products (e.g. raw meat, fish, and poultry) or unclean people, countertops, and kitchen equipment to ready-to-eat foods (e.g., fruits, vegetables, deli meats/cheeses, and prepared or cooked foods).
2. Prevent cross contamination when grocery shopping.
Physically separate raw meat, fish and poultry to prevent their juices from dripping onto other foods. This can be done by:
3. Segregating raw meat, fish and poultry on one side of the shopping cart.
4. Placing raw meat, fish and poultry in separate plastic bags (e.g. one bag for chicken, one bag for fish, etc.).
5. Designate reusable bags for grocery shopping only. Reusable bags for raw meat, fish, or poultry should never be used for ready-to-eat products.
6. Frequently wash bags. Cloth bags should be washed in a machine and machine dried or air-dried. Plastic-lined bags should be scrubbed using hot water and soap and air-dried.
7. Separate raw meat, fish and poultry in disposable plastic bags before putting them in a reusable bag
8. Check that both cloth and plastic-lined reusable bags are completely dry before storing.
9. Prevent cross contamination when storing food in the refrigerator.
10. In the refrigerator, store raw meats, fish, and poultry below ready-to-eat and cooked foods.
11. When thawing frozen raw meat, fish and poultry, put the food in a plastic bag or on a plate on the lowest shelf to prevent juices from dripping onto other foods.
12. After thawing in the refrigerator, food should remain safe and of good quality for a few days before cooking. Food thawed in the refrigerator can be refrozen without cooking, although quality may be impacted. See Chill section for other methods for thawing.
13. Prevent cross contamination when handling, preparing, and serving food.
14. Thoroughly wash your hands before and after handling different foods, after using the bathroom, and anytime they can become contaminated.
15. Use separate cutting boards for meat and produce. Alternatively, prepare produce first, then meat.
16. Wash and rinse cutting board, knives, and preparation area after cutting raw meat, fish or poultry. These items can be sanitized after cleaning.
17. Use a clean serving plate to serve cooked meat. 18. Do not use the plate that held the raw meat, unless it is washed.
19. Throw away any sauce or dip that has been used to marinade raw meat, fish, or poultry. Do not use this extra sauce as a dip for cooked food unless it is boiled first.
20. COOK food thoroughly and use a thermometer to verify the proper temperature was reached.
21. To determine that the proper temperature was reached, place a food thermometer in the thickest part of the food and allow the it to equilibrate.
22. Make sure it's not touching bone, fat, or gristle.
23. For whole poultry, insert the thermometer into the innermost part of the thigh and wing and the thickest part of the breast.
24. For combination dishes, place the thermometer in the center or thickest portion.
25. Egg dishes and dishes containing ground meat or poultry should be checked in several places.
26. Clean your food thermometer with hot, soapy water before and after each use!
27. Food Thermometers - Why use them? Not only is it important to monitor the refrigerator temperature (chill foods); but using a thermometer is the only reliable way to ensure that a food is properly cooked. When cooking:
28. Color is not a reliable indicator that the food has been cooked to the correct temperature to ensure that foodborne pathogens are destroyed.
29. Determining "doneness" of hamburger cannot be safely done by looking at the brown color of the meat or of chicken by looking that the juices run clear.
30. Time alone as an indicator that the food is cooked properly could result in a potential food safety hazard. Recipes may state "x minutes/pound". However, different thicknesses of a food or ingredients that are used can alter the time needed at a specific temperature to make sure the food has reached the correct temperature to kill all pathogens.
31. Food thermometers come in several types and styles and range in level of technology and price. There is a lot of good information on how to use a thermometer correctly, proper placement, and how to check to see if it is accurate (see Resources- Thermometers).
32. Pop-up temperature devices are commonly found in turkeys or oven roaster chickens. These devices indicate that the food has come to the correct temperature for safety. However, while these devices are reliable, it is recommended that the temperature be checked in several places with a conventional thermometer to ensure proper cooking.
33. CHILL foods promptly. Cold temperatures slow the growth of harmful bacteria. Cold air must circulate to help keep food safe, so do not over fill the refrigerator. Maintain the refrigerator temperature at 41°F or below. Place an appliance thermometer in the rear portion of the refrigerator, and monitor regularly. Maintain the freezer temperature at 0°F or below.
34. Refrigerate and/or freeze meat, poultry, eggs and other perishables as soon as possible after purchasing.
35. Consider using a cooler with ice or gel packs to transport perishable food.
36. Perishable foods, such as cut fresh fruits or vegetables and cooked food should not sit at room temperature more than two hours before putting them in the refrigerator or freezer (one hour when the temperature is above 90°F).
37. There are three safe ways to thaw food: in the refrigerator (see Separate), in cold water, and in the microwave. Food thawed in cold water or in the microwave should be cooked immediately.
38. Submerging the food in cold water. It is important to place the food in a bag that will prevent the water from entering. Check the water every 30 minutes to make sure it is cold. Cook food prior to refreezing.
39. Microwave thawing. Cook food immediately once thawed because some areas of the food may become warm and begin to cook during the thawing process. Cook food prior to refreezing.
40. Cool leftovers quickly by dividing large amounts into shallow containers for quicker cooling in the refrigerator.
What are proper cooking temperatures to prevent food-borne illness?
Components of a basic recipe?
Volume, weight, fractions, recipe directions, safety techniques
describe the cause and effect of major food-borne pathogens in causing illness
Foodborne illness is caused by consuming contaminated foods or beverages. Many different disease-causing microbes or pathogens can contaminate foods, so there are many different types of foodborne illnesses.
Most foodborne diseases are infections caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Other diseases are poisonings caused by harmful toxins or chemicals that have contaminated food.
Of note many foodborne pathogens also can be acquired through recreational or drinking water, from contact with animals or their environment, or through person-to-person spread.
Common symptoms of foodborne illness are diarrhea and/or vomiting, typically lasting 1 to 7 days. Other symptoms might include abdominal cramps, nausea, fever, joint/back aches, and fatigue.
What some people call the "stomach flu" may actually be a foodborne illness caused by a pathogen (i.e., virus, bacteria, or parasite) in contaminated food or drink.
The incubation period (the time between exposure to the pathogen and onset of symptoms) can range from several hours to 1 week.
what are some cooking methods?
1. Broiling-Uses radiant heat from an overhead source to cook foods. The food to be broiled is placed on a preheated metal grate. Radiant heat from overhead cooks the food, while the hot grate marks it with attractive crosshatch marks.
2. Grilling-Although similar to broiling, grilling uses heat source located beneath the cooking surface. Grilled foods are often identified by crosshatch markings.
3. Roasting & Baking-Are the processes of surrounding a food with dry, heated air in a closed environment. The term roasting is usually applied to meats and poultry, while baking is used when referring to fish, fruits, vegetables, starches, breads and pastry items.
4. Sauteing-Uses conduction to transfer heat from a hot sauté pan to food with the aid of a small amount of hot fat. To saute food properly, begin by heating sauté pan on the stove top, then add a small amount of fat. The fat should just cover the bottom of the pan. Heat the fat to the point where it just begins to smoke. The food to be cooked should be as dry as possible when added to the pan to promote browning and to prevent excessive spattering. The heat should be adjusted so that the food cooks thoroughly; it should not be so hot that the outside of the food burns before the inside is cooked.
5. Pan-frying-Pan-frying shares similarities with both sautéing and deep-frying. It is a cooking method in which heat is transferred by conduction from pan to the food, using a moderate amount of fat. Foods are usually coated in breading. This forms a seal that keeps food moist and prevents the hot fat from penetrating the food and causing it to become greasy.
6. Deep-frying-Is a cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat to a food submerged in hot fat; foods to be deep fried are usually first coated in batter or breading. This preserves moisture and prevents the food from absorbing excessive quantities of fat. Foods deep-fried should be uniform size and shape.
Moist-Heat Cooking Methods:
Cooking with moist heat is a processes of applying heat to food by submerging it directly into a hot liquid or by exposing it to steam.
7. Poaching-It is often associated with delicately flavored foods that do not require lengthy cooking times to tenderize them, such as eggs, fruit, or fish. When poaching the food is placed in a liquid held at temperatures between 160
F. The surface of the liquid should show only a slight movement, but no bubbles. Do not allow the liquid to boil, this will cause the food to get stringy and will destroy the delicate foods.
There are two methods of poaching, submersion and shallow poaching. For submerged poaching the liquid covers the food completely. With shallow poaching, the food is placed in just enough liquid to come approximately half-way up the sides. Shallow poaching combines aspects of poaching and steaming.
8. Simmering-Is often associated with foods that need to be tenderized through a long, slow, moist cooking, such as less tender cuts of meat. The food is submerged in a liquid held at temperatures between 185
F. As with poaching the liquid used for the simmering has a great effect on the food's flavor.
9. Boiling-Is a moist-heat cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat from a hot (approximately 212*F) liquid to the food submerged in it; the turbulent waters and higher temperatures cook foods more quickly than do poaching or simmering. Most boiled meats are actually simmered. Even hard-boiled eggs are really only simmered. Starches such as pasta and potatoes are among the only types of foods that are truly boiled.
10. Steaming-A moist-heat cooking method in which heat is transferred from steam to the food being cooked by direct contact; the food to be steamed is placed in a basket or rack above a boiling liquid in a covered pan. It is often associated with tender, delicately flavored foods, such as fish and vegetables which do not require long cooking times. Steaming tends to enhance the food's natural flavor and helps retain its nutrients.
11. Braising-Braising is associated with large pieces of meat. Enough liquid is added to come one-third to half-way up the item being cooked.
12. Stewing-Is associated with small pieces of meat. Stewed foods have enough liquid added to cover them completely and are simmered at a constant temperature until tender. Cooking time is generally shorter for stewing than for braising because the main items are smaller.
What are emulsifiers?
Emulsifiers are among the most frequently used types of food additives. They are used for many reasons.They are used to aid in the processing of foods and also to help maintain quality and freshness.Emulsifiers are the chemicals that make emulsions happen. Nature uses proteins and phospholipids, and many emulsifiers used in modern food production are based on these natural substances.
Ice cream is another food that would not exist were it not for emulsifiers.An emulsifier is a molecule in which one end likes to be in an oily environment and the other in a water environment. Examples of emulsifiers are Lecithins, Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
What are leavening agents?
In baking, leavening is the air (or gas, really) that causes breads, cakes and other baked goodies to rise when they go in the oven.
That gas is produced in different ways, depending on what type of leavening agent you use. This in turn varies according to what you're baking.
But the simplest way to think of it is that the leavening agent produces the gas, and the gas causes the dough or batter to rise.
There are three main types of leavening agents: biological (yeast), chemical (baking soda/baking powder) and steam (water vapor). We'll look at each one in more detail.
what is oxidation in cooking?
When chemicals in food are exposed to oxygen in the air, their chemical composition changes and they begin to break down.
Animal and plant tissues contain antioxidant molecules to prevent this from happening. These molecules can slow the rate of oxidation in our foods.
For example, red meat turns gray when the myoglobin pigment oxidizes. In this case, the product is not unsafe; it just looks less appealing. Wrapping some food products in a wrap that limits oxidation (such as Saran Wrap) will help to keep them fresh.Foods which contain edible oils will spoil once exposed to oxygen from the air due to oxidation reactions.
This chemical change results in a bad flavour and smell from the food. If left exposed to air for even a short time, butter will spoil due to the formation of butanoic acid as the butter is hydrolysed.
Antioxidants are molecules that play an important role in preventing our food from spoiling too quickly by stopping oxidation reactions from taking place.
what are the types of culinary equipment used for food processing, cooking, holding, storing, and serving?
Measurement devices include scales and weighing systems, thermometers, pressure gages, timers and other precision control components. These instruments are used to analyze ingredients and machines, and to allow manufacturers to perform and duplicate processing procedures without complications. They are also used to monitor existing systems and machinery, whether to log data during product testing or to quantify typical performance statistics. Measurement devices are particularly important during food manufacture, as minor changes in cooking temperature, ingredient ratios and operation times can lead to drastic changes in the finished product.
Preparation and cooking equipment includes conveyor systems, ovens, dispensing machines, mixing and cutting machines, and transport hoses, pipes and tubes. Each food preparation facility is unique, and many preparation systems are custom designed for the required application. However, a wide variety of standard systems are incorporated into the final design, allowing manufacturers to minimize the expense of full-scale customization. Preparation and cooking components require regular maintenance and cleaning to meet accepted industry standards.
Storage and packaging equipment used for the food industry ranges from simple plastic wrapping to vacuum sealing and bottling. Freezers, coolers and chillers help maintain delicate ingredients and temperature sensitive products for future use or sale. Various sealing and packing techniques are used by manufacturers, including shrink wrap, tamper-proof caps, air-tight bags and cardboard boxes. Pallets, racks, bins and drums are also available for large shipments.
what is the role of local agencies in ensuring food safety?
Local health departments are an essential part of the national food safety system. They are
responsible for food inspections in restaurants, grocery stores, daycare facilities, hospitals,
schools and some food manufacturing plants, and they also investigate consumer complaints. · When food products are found to be unsafe, local health departments initiate recalls—getting the
word out to both businesses and consumers to ensure that these products are pulled from the
shelves. · When a new restaurant opens, local health departments are responsible for training employees on
safe food handling practices. · Local agencies carry out food safety laboratory functions—collecting and testing food and human
samples—in some jurisdictions. (In others, laboratory functions are done by state agencies.)
what is the role of state agencies in ensuring food safety?
State Health Agencies play a critical role in food safety as they are responsible for regulatory,
laboratory, epidemiological response, and coordination activities.
what is the role of federal agencies in ensuring food safety?
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the primary regulatory agency impacting the food industry with regard to food safety, food adulteration, and food labeling or misbranding. The majority of the food-related regulatory activity is within the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (2). The FDA oversees domestic and imported food (including shell eggs, bottled water, and wine beverages with less than 7% alcohol) sold in interstate commerce, except meat, poultry, and processed egg products (which fall under the USDAs Food Safety and Inspection Service).
The FDA is the primary enforcement agency for the following federal acts:
Federal Food Drug & Cosmetic Act (FDCA);
Nutritional Labeling & Education Act (NLEA); and
Dietary Supplement Health & Education Act (DSHEA).
The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) (11) is the primary food safety regulatory agency within the USDA and has regulatory authority for all domestic and imported processed egg products, raw meat and poultry, and processed meat and poultry products (e.g., products containing 3% or more of raw meat or poultry, or 2% or more of cooked meat or poultry).
Compare pasteurization, sterilization, and fortification.
Pasteurization is the process of heating food, specifically liquids, to a specific temperature to slow microbial growth in the food. Sterilization refers to the process of eliminating all forms of bacteria from any product.
Pasteurization is the process of heating food, specifically liquids, to a specific temperature to slow microbial growth in the food. Pasteurization requires rapidly heating the liquid to a specific temperature for a specified time, followed by rapid cooling and then sealing.
Sterilization refers to the process of eliminating all forms of bacteria from any product. Sterilization is not limited to only liquids but can also refer to solid surfaces, fluids, medications, etc. The process of sterilization kills all forms of microbial life, including fungi, spores, viruses and bacteria. Sterilization is done using various methods such as applying heat, irradiation, chemicals and applying high pressure.
Fortification is adding vitamins and minerals to foods to prevent nutritional deficiencies. The nutrients regularly used in grain fortification prevent diseases, strengthen immune systems, and improve productivity and cognitive development.
Main methods of food fortification:
Commercial and industrial fortification (wheat flour, corn meal, cooking oils)
Biofortification (breeding crops to increase their nutritional value, which can include both conventional selective breeding, and genetic engineering)
Home fortification (example: vitamin D drops)
Define freezing, drying, and salting.
Fresh fruits and vegetables, when harvested, continue to undergo chemical changes which can cause spoilage and deterioration of the product. This is why these products should be frozen as soon after harvest as possible and at their peak degree of ripeness.
Fresh produce contains chemical compounds called enzymes which cause the loss of color, loss of nutrients, flavor changes, and color changes in frozen fruits and vegetables. These enzymes must be inactivated to prevent such reactions from taking place.
Enzymes in vegetables are inactivated by the blanching process. Blanching is the exposure of the vegetables to boiling water or steam for a brief period of time. The vegetable must then be rapidly cooled in ice water to prevent it from cooking. Contrary to statements in some publications on home freezing, in most cases blanching is absolutely essential for producing quality frozen vegetables. Blanching also helps to destroy microorganisms on the surface of the vegetable and to make some vegetables, such as broccoli and spinach, more compact.
The major problem associated with enzymes in fruits is the development of brown colors and loss of vitamin C. Because fruits are usually served raw, they are not blanched like vegetables. Instead, enzymes in frozen fruit are controlled by using chemical compounds which interfere with deteriorative chemical reactions. The most common control chemical is ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Ascorbic acid may be used in its pure form or in commercial mixtures with sugars.
Drying food is a slow process. In a dehydrator, it takes six or more hours to dry foods. In the oven, it takes eight or more hours. Drying time depends on the type of food, the thickness of the cut, the moisture content of the food and the drying method. Don't speed up the drying time by turning up the oven. You will cook the food on the outside before it dries on the inside. This is called "case hardening." The food may appear dry on the outside but is wet on the inside. It will mold later on in storage.Drying is the process of preserving food by removing water from it. Removing
water prevents decay and the growth of microorganisms. Drying foods (air drying, sun
drying, wind drying, or drying near an open fire) to prevent spoiling has been known
since ancient times.
Salting, especially of meat, is the process of preserving food with salt (and a little
saltpeter). This method draws out moisture that causes decay. Also, most bacteria, fungi,
and other disease-causing organisms cannot survive in such a salty environment. Meat
salted in cold weather (so it does not spoil before the salt has time to take effect), can last
for many years.
Salted meat was often smoked as well, by exposing it to smoke from a wood fire.
In the American colonies, most home properties included a smokehouse where meats
were smoked and stored. The practice of preserving meat with salt was so common in the
1700s that most people ate salted meat at nearly every meal. Salting is a sub category of the drying method. The main difference here is that salt is added to products, mainly meat and fish, to draw out moisture. This lowers the bacteria content and makes food adaptable for later use. Adding salt to animal protein turns it a bit leathery. Popular foods made in this tradition are beef jerky and dry salted cod.
what are the major food categories?
Fruit, vegetables, grains, protein, and dairy
how are the major food categories used to plan menus?
USDA recommends including foods from all food groups at each meal. A healthy diet comprises 1.5 to 2 cups of fruit and 2 to 3 cups of vegetables daily. Grains are an important part of your diet, but at least half of your consumption should come from whole grains. Include 3 to 4 oz. of grain foods in your meals throughout the day. Get 3 cups from the milk group and 5 to 6 oz. of protein foods.
how are USDA food guidelines used to help menu planning?
As nutrition science has progressed over time, scientists have discovered vitamins, minerals, and other components that make up our foods, and surely, there are more yet to be discovered. Food groups simplify dietary recommendations by focusing on foods instead of nutrients. For example, it's much easier to try to eat two cups of fruit a day than 75 milligrams of vitamin C and 25 grams of fiber. The USDA Food Patterns provide the recommended amounts of each food group and subgroup at 12 different calorie levels, ranging from 1,000 to 3,200. These patterns are developed using food pattern modeling. By eating recommended amounts, individuals can meet their nutritional needs without having to track dozens of individual nutrients.The USDA Food Patterns specify targets for each food group in cup equivalents (for Fruits, Vegetables, and Dairy) and ounce equivalents (for Grains and Protein Foods). Each pattern also includes a limited number of calories (8-19%) that can be used in other ways, such as small amounts of added sugars and saturated fats. Americans are encouraged to choose foods in their most nutrient dense forms as often as possible, to keep added sugars and saturated fat intakes each below 10 percent of total calorie intake.
what are the basic biochemical processes necessary to digest food in the human body?
The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder are essential for digestion. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digest proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, the liver produces bile that helps the body absorb fat, and the gallbladder stores the bile until it is needed.The first stage of digestion is ingestion, in which food is taken into the mouth and then broken down into smaller pieces by the chewing action of the teeth.Chemical digestion begins in the stomach, a large, hollow, pouch like muscular organ. While food is still in the mouth, the stomach begins its production of gastric juice, which contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that digests protein. Gastric juice is the material that breaks down the food. Then the small intestine, then the large.
what is the effect of metabolism and caloric intake on the human body across the lifespan?
There is widespread consensus in aging research that eating fewer calories results in a longer, healthier life.Aging is associated with an increased risk for metabolic disorders, including overweight, obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Calorie restriction (CR), a dietary intervention that is low in calories but maintains proper nutrition, is the only intervention known to date that consistently decreases the biological rate of aging and increases both average and maximal lifespan.
How can food affect the body and cause disease like heart disease and diabetes?
Heart Disease-Type of fat eaten - saturated and trans fats increase blood cholesterol and heart attack rates. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats lower the risk of heart attacks.High cholesterol poses a major risk for heart disease.Too many calories in the diet can increase a person's risk of being overweight, which is another leading cause of heart disease.Too much salt can raise blood pressure, which can increase a person's risk for related heart conditions. Foods high in sodium can also add to blood pressure problems.
Diabetes-n healthy people, insulin keeps the blood sugar level relatively constant. However, for those vulnerable to type 2 diabetes, the body gradually loses its sensitivity to insulin. This leads to chronically elevated blood sugar levels, also known as impaired glucose tolerance. Yet carbs are processed differently in the body based on their type: While simple carbs are digested and metabolized quickly, complex carbs take longer to go through this system, resulting in more stable blood sugar.
what are the essential nutrients and their sources?
Carbohydrates are the main energy source for the brain. Without carbohydrates, the body could not function properly. Sources include fruits, breads and grains, starchy vegetables and sugars.
Protein is the major structural component of cells and is responsible for the building and repair of body tissues. lean protein sources such as low-fat meat, dairy, beans or eggs.
at is an energy source that when consumed, increases the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins including vitamins A, D, E and K. omega-3-rich foods like fish, walnuts and vegetable-based oils. Omega-3s help with development and growth. Limit intake of saturated fats such as high-fat meats and full-fat dairy. Other smart choices include nuts, seeds and avocado.
Vitamin C is necessary for the synthesis of collagen, which provides structure to blood vessels, bone and ligaments. Rich sources include citrus fruits, strawberries and peppers.
Sodium helps to maintain fluid volume outside of the cells and helps cells to function normally. Keep intake under 2,400 milligrams per day. Potassium maintains fluid volume inside and outside of cells and prevents the excess rise of blood pressure with increased sodium intake. Rich sources include bananas, potatoes and tomatoes. Calcium helps to maintain and build strong bones and teeth. Include three servings of calcium-rich foods per day including milk, low-fat cheese and yogurt.
Water helps to maintain homeostasis in the body and transports nutrients to cells. Water also assists in removing waste products from the body. All beverages and high-moisture foods such as soup and watermelon contain water and count towards your daily water requirement. A
Dietary guidelines across the lifespan
Follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan. Eating patterns are the combination of foods and drinks that a person eats over time.
Focus on variety, nutrient-dense foods, and amount
Limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats, and reduce sodium intake
Shift to healthier food and beverage choices
Support healthy eating patterns for all
What are the cultural, economic, physical, and social factors that influence food consumption behavior?
Biological determinants such as hunger, appetite, and taste
Economic determinants such as cost, income, availability
Physical determinants such as access, education, skills (e.g. cooking) and time
Social determinants such as culture, family, peers and meal patterns
Psychological determinants such as mood, stress and guilt
Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge about food
What are the elements of design for housing and interiors?
How color, shape, line, and texture are combined to form designs
A well designed home incorporates the principles and elements of design in order to create a harmonious balance that surmounts to a beautiful living space which pleases the eye, yet is functional for those who live in it.
Space, texture, light, color, pattern, line, and form
What are the principles of design for housing and interiors?
Unity-Unity, continuity and harmony are necessary to link all interior spaces.
Balance-Balance in interior design refers to the proper distribution of objects in a room to create visual balance.
Rhythm-Bring a sense of rhythm and movement to your rooms with color, shape, size, texture or pattern through repetition, progression, transition.
Contrast-Contrast in a room can refer to color, form and use of space. As with repetition, a little contrast goes a long way.
Emphasis-Emphasis is something we all know about. It simply means that every room or space has a focal point, whether it is architectural or an object.
Scale-Scale relates to the size of objects within a space.
Proportion-Proportion, on the other hand, refers to the size of one object to another.
Details-Details in interior design go far beyond the accessories in a room. Think of the details as decorations on a cake. They are the small, subtle touches that can make a huge impact in a room.
What are the different types of housing?
Condos, detached houses, townhouse, semi-attached house, duplex, triplex, apartments
How do housing needs change across the lifespan?
Adaptability, affordability, accessibility, location, design,
what is the environmental impact of interior housing material?
green, sustainable and Fair Trade (GSFT) products
green design refers to a focus on people issues - their health, safety and welfare; whilst sustainable design encompasses a more global approach - the health, safety and welfare of the planet, so that it is possible for this generation to meet their needs without jeopardising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Materials selection has a high impact on the sustainable outcome of all interior design projects but in particular commercial interior design projects, which are generally 'churned' every 5-7 years, placing a heavy burden on resources and creating large amounts of waste
less energy consumption, less natural resource depletion and pollution, plus less toxicity for both the occupants and the entire ecosystem
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a highly detailed scientific analysis that examines all the life cycle impacts of a product in great detail. An LCA quantifies the majority of known chemical, physical, resource-based and energy impacts of a material or product.
what is the environmental impact of exterior housing materials?
Selecting environmentally attractive materials with
reduced environmental impacts is primarily achieved
through the practice of resource conservation and
selection of non-toxic materials. The resources used
to manufacture construction materials affect the
environment by depleting natural resources, using
energy, and releasing pollutants to the land, water, and atmosphere. Materials that contain irritating, odorous,
hazardous, or toxic components adversely affect human
health through out-gassing of volatile components or
Sustainable housing materials
Steel can be recycled repeatedly without any
degradation in terms of properties or performance
Steel construction has excellent low waste
credentials during all phases of the building life
cycle. It generates very little waste, with the byproducts
of steel production widely reused by
the construction industry. Any waste generated
during manufacture is recycled. There is
virtually no waste from steel products on the
construction siteAll steel products are 100% recyclable. Today,
around 40% of steel is produced from recycled
A few types of waste are being studied, such
as incinerator ashes from domestic refuse,
spent copper slag fi nes which are residue from
sand blasting and waste concrete from
construction, renovation and demolition (CRD)
of old buildings.
Curtain walls, cladding and glass facades can
be used to replace the traditional masonry
and concrete walls. These facade systems
offer new dimensions and excitement in
Wool Bricks, sustainable concrete, solar tiles, paper insulation, triple glazed windows
Hazardous housing materials
Lead paint, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) caulking, asbestos, Fluorescent and high-intensity discharge (HID) bulbs, mercury switches
Respirable silica is found in sand, concrete, brick, Portland Cement, ceramic tile, stone, and other materials made of stone or earth
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are found in electrical transformers, light fixture ballasts, and in other electrical equipment
Glass fiber is found in insulation and is used as reinforcement in plastics.
Mineral wool is found in insulation and is used as reinforcement in vinyl composition floor tiles
Cadmium is used as a rust inhibitor on hardware, and in paints
Asphalt is used as a sealant, in adhesives, and in many roofing materials
Radioactive isotopes, used in ionization-type smoke detectors and in compact fluorescent lamps
what are the economic factors that affect housing
economic growth, unemployment, interest rates, consumer confidence, supply, mortgage availability, Affordability/house prices to earnings, Geographical factors
Younger Millennials are lagging behind in terms of income and/or are saddled with burdensome student debt; many are opting to live with their parents for longer time frames and are therefore delaying entry into the rental or ownership markets.
The trend of aging in place means retirees are seeking living options that include medical, assisting living and memory care services.
The economic downturn/Great Recession has led to greater demand for rental properties, which persists today in the face of stagnant wages and a struggling middle class.
Despite their age and lifestyle disparities, both boomers and Millennials are competing for the same housing in many of the same areas, generating demand for multifamily development with attractive amenities.
how do interest rates affect housing choices?
When mortgage rates are lower, this makes the purchasing of a home more affordable. Consequently, the sales of homes rise as more consumers are able to take out a low-cost loan. Consumers with existing mortgages may attempt to re-finance their mortgage, meaning they trade their current loan for another, cheaper one. In periods of low interest rates, more houses are often built as demand rises, and development companies are able to borrow money at a cheaper rate to finance the construction. Although the cost of mortgages is closely tied to the interest rate, the price at which homes are sold does not always appear in direct correlation. While low interest rates can raise demand for houses, pushing up the prices of houses, if the price gets too high, demand can cool, causing house prices to plummet.
what are the cultural and social factors that affect housing choices?
A group's culture influences their housing choices, and the housing becomes a part of the culture.
Europeans built houses that looked like the houses from their homelands
Many societal changes affect housing, including
working at home
what is haute couture?
The term "haute couture" is French. Haute means "high" or "elegant." Couture literally means "sewing," but has come to indicate the business of designing, creating, and selling custom-made, high fashion women's clothes.
Haute Couture is a much-misused phrase that actually has very specific rules for qualification. Translated literally, couture is French for dressmaking, while haute means high. These are garments created as one off pieces for a specific client. 19th century Englishman Charles Frederick Worth is considered as the father of Haute Couture and today members are selected by the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture. To qualify as an official Haute Couture house, members must design made-to-order clothes for private clients, with more than one fitting, using an atelier (workshop) that employs at least fifteen fulltime staff. They must also have twenty fulltime technical workers in one of their workshops. Finally, Haute Couture houses must present a collection of no less than 50 original designs — both day and evening garments — to the public every season, in January and July.
how has haute couture changed over the decades?
Today, we see it as an art form, as a way to increase skews for a certain house and a marketing tool for all the little bits and pieces that are sold to the mass public. Couture has changed dramatically over the years and we have noticed it of late rather too well.
While the haute couture is about the development and maintenance of a rare craft, which includes decorating techniques and the use of different textiles, the ready to wear lines are all about producing what is trending and what the public wants.
Where and when did the modern industry of fashion design begin?
The origin of fashion designing dates as far back as 1826. Charles Frederick Worth is believed to be the first fashion designer of the world, from 1826 to 1895. Charles, who was earlier a draper, set up a fashion house in Paris. It was he who started the tradition of fashion houses and telling his customers what kind of clothing would suit them.
During this period, a number of design houses began to hire the services of artists to develop patterns for garments. Patterns would be presented to the clients, who would then place an order if they liked them. It was during this timeframe that the tradition of presenting patterns to the customers and then stitching them began, instead of the earlier system wherein the finished garments would be presented to them.
In the beginning of the 20th century, new developments in fashion would take place in Paris first, from where they would spread to the rest of the world. New designs of clothes would be born in Paris before they found their way to other parts of the world. In other words, Paris emerged as the 'fashion capital'. 'Fashion' during this period was mostly 'haute couture', exclusively designed for individuals.
Towards the mid-20th century, fashion garments began to be mass-produced. The bulk of production increased, and people began to have more choices of garments. Towards the end of the 20th century, fashion awareness among people increased, and they began choosing clothes for themselves based on comfort and their own style, instead of relying on the trends prevailing in the market.
How did World War II affect the global center of fashion design?
Clothes were rationed in Britain from 1 June 1941. This limited the amount of new garments people could buy until 1949, four years after the war's end.
Shoppers carefully spent their precious clothing coupons and money on new clothes to make sure their purchases would be suitable across spring, summer and autumn and winter. Despite the restrictions, the war and civilian austerity did not put an end to creative design, commercial opportunism or fashionable trends on the British home front.When Britain went to war in 1939 it seemingly spelt an end for fashion. The people of Britain now had more pressing concerns, such as widely expected air raids and possible German invasion. In many ways war did disrupt and dislocate fashion in Britain. Resources and raw materials for civilian clothing were limited. Prices rose and fashion staples such as silk were no longer available. Purchase tax and clothes rationing were introduced. But fashion survived and even flourished in wartime, often in unexpected ways.. As women were conscripted into industrial work from 1941, factory safety became a big issue. Accidents caused by long hair getting caught in machinery became too common, so headscarves - or turbans, or 'glamour bands' - were adopted by many. Headscarves were a chance to bring a flash of colour and individuality to drab factory overalls. Utility clothing covered a range of dresses, coats, jackets, trousers, shirts, socks, gloves and shoes. Utility ranges were produced for men, women and children.The Utility scheme developed out of a need to make production of civilian clothing in British factories more efficient and to provide price-regulated better quality clothing. Until Utility clothing was introduced, the less well-off had to use the same number of coupons for cheaper garments that might wear out in half the time. Utility fabrics - and clothes made from these materials - gave the public a guarantee of quality and value for their money and coupons.
What is the goal of sustainable fashion?
Sustainable fashion, or slow fashion, is a growing movement in response to the fast fashion trend that has increased our waste of clothing and the inherent wastefulness of this type of consumerism.
"The goal of sustainable fashion is to bring environmentalism and social responsibility into the clothing manufacturing process."
What are the factors when considering the sustainability of a clothing material?
What constitutes a sustainable textile?
Broadly speaking, the answer lies in four main factors: raw material extraction, textile production, added chemistry and end-of-life.
Raw material extraction for example, addresses the land and water used to grow natural fibers like cotton and wool, or the impacts of extracting fossil fuels for synthetic fibers such as polyester or nylon.
Production considerations include the water and energy used for manufacturing, the impact of production waste and a company's social responsibility towards its workers and the communities that surround its production facilities. Added chemistries, including dyes, finishes and coatings, may impact the health of textile workers as well as consumers of the final product.
Finally, the end-of-life scenario, including textile biodegradability and the reclamation infrastructure required to turn it into new raw material, strongly affect its sustainability.
solution-dyed nylon, which is widely used in carpet, upholstery and apparel. Solution dying, a process of locking the color into the fiber itself, produces a high-performing fabric. In garment applications, it produces clothing that does not fade after repeated laundering. Solution-dyed nylon furnishings, including carpet and upholstery, can withstand strong cleaning regimes without fading or deteriorating.
Wool has several sustainable attributes: it is rapidly renewable, biodegradable, recyclable, and can be produced organically.
what is the difference between natural fibers and manufactured fibers
Natural fabrics, like merino wool, cotton, cashmere, and silk, are made of fibers that are produced by animals and plants. Synthetic fabrics, like polyester, nylon and acrylic, are "man-made" fibers that are created in laboratories.oth natural and synthetic fibers are the fundamental components of all textiles. The cotton plant yields natural cotton fiber used in making clothes, clinical cotton wool and sanitary pads. Silk worms produce silk, and wool is obtained by shaving off bred sheep such as the Merino variety. Another natural fiber, linen, is obtained from the flax plant. Synthetic fibers are extracted from chemical sources. Nylon, acrylic and polyester are synthetic fibers that come from coal and oil. Viscose materials are obtained from petrochemicals. These types of fibers are spun into yarns that are either weaved or knitted into fabrics. While clothes made of natural fabrics are usually more comfortable to wear, those made of synthetic fabrics sometimes irritate the skin of the wearer. Naturally occurring fibers grow with their natural colors, but dyes and tints are frequently added to man-made fibers.
Identify the four ways that textiles are formed.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread). Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting.
what are the four main sources of materials for textile production?
Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal (wool, silk), plant (cotton, flax, jute), mineral (asbestos, glass fibre), and synthetic (nylon, polyester, acrylic). The first three are natural.
identify textile production methods
Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of vertical threads (called the warp) with a set of horizontal threads (called the weft). This is done on a machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanised.
Knitting and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a knitting needle or on a crochet hook, together in a line. The two processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while crocheting never has more than one active loop on the needle.
Braiding or plaiting involves twisting threads together into cloth. Knotting involves tying threads together and is used in making macrame.
Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing and any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine.
Carpets, rugs, velvet, velour, and velveteen, are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile.
Felting involves pressing a mat of fibers together, and working them together until they become tangled. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibers, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool.
what is a characteristic of fabric that been chemically processed to resist wrinkles and hold its shape?
permanent press. Alternative terms include wrinkle resistant, wash and wear, no-iron, durable press, and easy care.
what are signs of quality construction of a garment?
Check the Fabric Content- Generally, natural fibers (silk, cotton, wool) stand up better than synthetics, but some new synthetics are also worth your consideration, especially for technical or performance wear.
The "Hand" of the Fabric-You can really feel the difference between a good quality wool garment and one with lesser quality fiber content.
self-facing on the front placket, cuffs, and collars. This means that the same silk was used to provide additional thickness to these areas for better drape and strength.
Fabric Grain and Nap-Clothing should be cut along the grain of the fabric (except for bias-cut clothing and a few other exceptions). You can tell the grain by looking closely for the longest line of woven thread. Anyone who sews knows that you have to buy enough fabric (yardage) to ensure that all of the pattern pieces are placed following the grain of the fabric before cutting.Also, look for fabric with an obvious nap (velour, corduroy, velvet, etc.). The nap should run in the same direction on both legs of the pants, both front and back of the top, etc. (Some parts of clothing with a nap, such as waistbands, will most likely run horizontally, not vertically.)
quality of stitching as a test of quality. This includes seams and any top-stitching. If you gently pull a seam from the inside of the garment, you will see a lot of daylight between stitches in a poorly made garment. Better quality garments have more stitches per inch and thus have tighter seams - and thus less of a chance to have the seam come apart. Quality top-stitching should be straight, in matching thread (unless the top-stitching is designed for contrast) and have a high number of stitches per inch. The stitches should lie flat to avoid snags (no loopy stitches).
Seams are straight, neat, sturdy, reinforced.
Patterns line up at the seams
Extra fabric in the seams and hems to allow for tailoring as your body changes (because, let's be honest, they do change!)
After multiple washes and wears, the garment holds its shape
Fabric choice is suitable for the kind of garment
Tailoring - the presence and appropriate locations of darts and yokes in fabrics without 'give'
Presence of facing and interfacings to create sturdiness
Presence of linings which protect seams, protects the fabric and provides a neater silhouette on the body
Inclusion of extra buttons and notions like thread, sequins, beading, etc. that we can use to mend the garment later on
Visible high sewing stitch counts - the tighter stitching means stronger and more flexible clothing
Higher quality notions - for example, metal zippers instead of plastic, Mother of Pearl buttons instead of plastic buttons
what are some common handmade stitches?
Back tack - backward stitch(es) to anchor tacking or basting
Backstitch - a sturdy hand stitch for seams and decoration
Basting stitch (US) - for reinforcement or for temporarily holding fabric in place (same as Tack)
Blanket stitch - used to finish an unhemmed blanket
Blind stitch (or hemstitch) - a type of slip stitch used for inconspicuous hem
Buttonhole stitch - for reinforcing buttonholes and preventing cut fabric from raveling
Chain stitch - hand or machine stitch for seams or decoration
Cross-stitch - usually used for decoration, but may also be used for seams
Catch stitch (also 'flat' & 'blind' -catch stitch) a flat looped stitch used in hemming
Back tacking rases
Darning stitch - for repairing holes or worn areas in fabric or knitting
Embroidery stitch - one or more stitches forming a figure of recognizable look
Hemstitch (Hemming stitch) - decorative technique for embellishing the hem of clothing or household linens.
Pad stitch - secures two or more layers of fabric together and provide firmness
Pick stitch - a hand stitch that catches only a few threads on the wrong side of the fabric, difficult to produce nicely so typically used for hemming high quality garments
Running stitch - a hand stitch for seams and gathering
Slip stitch - a form of blind stitch for fastening two pieces of fabric together from the right side without the thread showing
Tack (UK, also baste or pin), quick, temporary stitching intended to be removed
Tent stitch - diagonal embroidery stitch at a 45-degree angle
Topstitch - used on garment edges such as necklines and hems, helps facings stay in place and gives a crisp edge
Whipstitch - for protecting edges
List types of seams for textile products.
WHEN TO USE IT: Stable fabrics / fabrics that don't fray easily. Something that may not be washed or worn a lot is best. It is the simplest of seam finishes, and requires no sewing.So if you can get away with just this, why not?! The zig zag edge helps in preventing the fabric from fraying.
WHEN TO USE IT: Any type of fabric, really (except for sheers and really delicate fabrics - they may shred).
WHEN TO USE IT: light to medium weight woven fabrics. May be too bulky for heavier fabrics.
WHEN TO USE IT: Sheer/lightweight/delicate fabrics. A french seam completely encases the raw edge of the seam allowance, creating a clean and professional finish on a garment where the seam might be visible.
WHEN TO USE IT: In garments that see a lot of stress - like pants and woven shirts. Look at your jeans - I bet you they have flat felled seams! It is a good seam for these types of garments because it is sturdy and durable. Also - this one is seen from the outside of the garment!
WHEN TO USE IT: Many, many different fabrics and garments. Very versatile.
french seams - encases the raw edge of the fabric within another fold of fabric, reduces unraveling of seam edges and contributes to longevity of garment
bias bound seams - raw edges are encased in bias tape
flat-felled seams - a seam made by placing one edge inside a folded edge of fabric, then stitching the fold down
Presence of the blind hem stitch on finer garments hems, like trousers or pencil skirts
List types of fabric finishes for textile products.
Mechanical abrading is used whereby the fabric is passed, dry, over a series of rollers covered with emery paper which rub and break the fibres to produce a soft weathered effect. Also known as emerised, sueded (for heavier fabric types) or peau de peche (suede-like fabrics are not achieved in this way). The process removes shine and softens the handle and color.
Sand-washing, like stone-washing uses the abrasive power of mineral particles in the wash. Being finer, it is generally applied to silk and viscose fabrics and has a similar effect to using sandpaper.
Mercerizing is a shrinkage process which involves passing fabric through a cold solution of 15-20% sodium carbonate, causing the flat ribbon-like cotton fibres to swell in cross-section and contract in length, making it much more lustrous. The process increases strength by as much as 20% and makes the fibres more receptive to dyes.
The earliest 'performance' fabrics were wovens coated with natural oils or wax to keep out water. Increasingly, though, with the benefits of petrochemical technology, the base fabric is used only to act as a stable ground for a layer of plastic. Many of what are called coated fabrics are little more than the coated layer itself. These fabrics are often finished by 'embossing' to give animal skin effects, created much like pile embossing. Polyurethane and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are the most common materials. Companies are reluctant to divulge details of the different chemical treatments that create high gloss, matt or metallic finishes.
Starch, shellac or glue can be applied to the surface of a fabric to give a glazed or polished appearance. The surface is then ironed under pressure. The finish allows resistance to dirt penetration and is often applied to cotton fabrics making them stiff and shiny.
The fabric is made from two fibres, for example polyester and cotton. A pattern effect is achieved by using a screen to force through chemicals which burn away one of the fibres, leaving sheer and opaque areas.
Fabrics can acquire a self-sterilizing quality by applying an antiseptic finish. The fabric remains unaffected by perspiration and can be washed or dry cleaned.
What are factors that contribute to quality customer relations?
1. Timeliness: Customers want their questions answered quickly and their problem resolved in a timely manner. Be specific about when something will happen and then make sure it happens.
2. Attitude: Attitude is everything. When customers are treated with respect, courtesy and professionalism they are most receptive to having a satisfactory outcome.
3. Empathy: Having empathy to their situation will usually calm down the most irate customer. Always treat others how we would like to be treated.
4. Ownership: Take responsibility for the situation. Even if you cannot fix things yourself, make sure the customer doesn't get bounced around trying to find the right person to help them.
5. Active Listening: Listen first, act second. Only when a customer feels that you have heard what their situation is will they have confidence that you will provide the correct solution. Plus, sometimes we inadvertently leap to an incorrect conclusion on the best solution before we have all the information. This leads to frustrated customers and repeat calls.
6. Expertise: Be knowledgeable about your product or service. If you don't know the answer -- say so, and then quickly get the information from someone who does. Don't simply pass the customer on to someone else without an introduction.
7. Dependability: When you say you are going to do something, do it. Never leave it up to the customer to follow up. Even if you don't have a solution, don't leave the customer hanging with timelines like "as soon as possible". Make a commitment to respond, even if it is to say "we are still working on it". Let the customer know what is being done.
What is a mark up?
the amount added to the cost price of goods to cover overhead and profit
A markup is added onto the total cost incurred by the producer of a good or service in order to cover the costs of doing business and create a profit.
Retail markup is commonly calculated as the difference between wholesale price and retail price, as a percentage of wholesale.
What is a mark down?
a reduction in price.
Temporary reduction in the selling price of an item to stimulate its demand or to drive a competitor out of the market. Permanent markdowns are created to remove a slow-selling item from the inventory.
Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/mark-down.html
What is cash flow?
Incomings and outgoings of cash, representing the operating activities of an organization. In accounting, cash flow is the difference in amount of cash available at the beginning of a period (opening balance) and the amount at the end of that period (closing balance).
What are factors that affect a businesses profit?
Sales Changes. Changes in sales is the most visible item that influences a company's gross profit. Both external and internal factors influence changes in sales. External factors include economic health, market stability, and natural factors, such as weather-related disasters.
what are the stages of human development?
The Pre-Natal stage starts in the conception
The Infancy or Babyhood stage happens from the birth up
The Early Childhood stage happens from two up to six years of age. This stage is considered as the exploration
The Late Childhood stage happens from six up to twelve years of age. This stage is considered as the gang age and the development of social life.
The Adolescence stage happens from thirteen up to nineteen years of age. The Adolescence is considered as the transition stage between the childhood and adulthood stage. In this stage, the sex maturation happens and physical developments rapidly occur; the individual feels, think and act differently.
The Early Adulthood stage happens from nineteen to forty years of age. This stage is the adjustment to the new patterns of life. Here, and individual adjusts to the new way of living as he or she has its own role to play such as being a parent, being a spouse or being in a high position in society and other else.
The Middle Age stage happens between the ages of forty up to the retirement. This stage in life is the transition stage and physical adjustment stage. In here, an individual may experience initial decline of physical and mental attributes.
The Old Age stage happens from the retirement to death. In this stage, an individual could experience rapid physical and mental decline as well as psychological and physical illnesses might be experienced.
Piaget's Human Development
The sensorimotor stage occurs from birth to age 2.It is characterized by the idea that infants "think" by manipulating the world around them. This is done by using all five senses: seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling.
The preoperational stage occurs from age 2 to age 7. During this stage, children can use symbols to represent words, images, and ideas, which is why children in this stage engage in pretend play.
The concrete operational stage occurs from age 7 to age 11. It is characterized by the idea that children's reasoning becomes focused and logical.
The formal operational stage occurs from age 11 to adulthood. It is characterized by the idea that children develop the ability to think in abstract ways.
Frued's Stages of Human development
Oral (0-1 years of age): During this stage, the mouth is the pleasure center for development. Freud believed this is why infants are born with a sucking reflex and desire their mother's breast. If a child's oral needs are not met during infancy, he or she may develop negative habits such as nail biting or thumb sucking to meet this basic need.
Anal (1-3 years of age): During this stage, toddlers and preschool-aged children begin to experiment with urine and feces. The control they learn to exert over their bodily functions is manifested in toilet-training. Improper resolution of this stage, such as parents toilet training their children too early, can result in a child who is uptight and overly obsessed with order.
Phallic (3-6 years of age): During this stage, preschoolers take pleasure in their genitals and, according to Freud, begin to struggle with sexual desires toward the opposite sex parent (boys to mothers and girls to fathers). For boys, this is called the Oedipus complex, involving a boy's desire for his mother and his urge to replace his father who is seen as a rival for the mother's attention. At the same time, the boy is afraid his father will punish him for his feelings, so he experiences castration anxiety. The Electra complex, later proposed by Freud's protégé Carl Jung, involves a girl's desire for her father's attention and wish to take her mother's place.
Latency (6-12 years of age): During this stage, sexual instincts subside, and children begin to further develop the superego, or conscience. Children begin to behave in morally acceptable ways and adopt the values of their parents and other important adults.
Genital (12+ years of age): During this stage, sexual impulses reemerge. If other stages have been successfully met, adolescents engage in appropriate sexual behavior, which may lead to marriage and childbirth.
Erickson's Stages of Human Development
Trust vs. Mistrust
From birth to 12 months of age, infants must learn that adults can be trusted. This occurs when adults meet a child's basic needs for survival.
Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
As toddlers (ages 1-3 years) begin to explore their world, they learn that they can control their actions and act on their environment to get results. They begin to show clear preferences for certain elements of the environment, such as food, toys, and clothing. A toddler's main task is to resolve the issue of autonomy vs. shame and doubt by working to establish independence. This is the "me do it" stage.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Once children reach the preschool stage (ages 3-6 years), they are capable of initiating activities and asserting control over their world through social interactions and play.
Industry vs. Inferiority
During the elementary school stage (ages 6-12), children face the task of industry vs. inferiority. Children begin to compare themselves with their peers to see how they measure up. They either develop a sense of pride and accomplishment in their schoolwork, sports, social activities, and family life, or they feel inferior and inadequate because they feel that they don't measure up.
Identity vs. Role Confusion
In adolescence (ages 12-18), children face the task of identity vs. role confusion. According to Erikson, an adolescent's main task is developing a sense of self. Adolescents struggle with questions such as "Who am I?" and "What do I want to do with my life?" Along the way, most adolescents try on many different selves to see which ones fit; they explore various roles and ideas, set goals, and attempt to discover their "adult" selves. Adolescents who are successful at this stage have a strong sense of identity and are able to remain true to their beliefs and values in the face of problems and other people's perspectives. When adolescents are apathetic, do not make a conscious search for identity, or are pressured to conform to their parents' ideas for the future, they may develop a weak sense of self and experience role confusion. They will be unsure of their identity and confused about the future. Teenagers who struggle to adopt a positive role will likely struggle to "find" themselves as adults.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
People in early adulthood (20s through early 40s) are concerned with intimacy vs. isolation. After we have developed a sense of self in adolescence, we are ready to share our life with others. However, if other stages have not been successfully resolved, young adults may have trouble developing and maintaining successful relationships with others. Erikson said that we must have a strong sense of self before we can develop successful intimate relationships. Adults who do not develop a positive self-concept in adolescence may experience feelings of loneliness and emotional isolation.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
When people reach their 40s, they enter the time known as middle adulthood, which extends to the mid-60s. The social task of middle adulthood is generativity vs. stagnation. Generativity involves finding your life's work and contributing to the development of others through activities such as volunteering, mentoring, and raising children. During this stage, middle-aged adults begin contributing to the next generation, often through childbirth and caring for others; they also engage in meaningful and productive work which contributes positively to society. Those who do not master this task may experience stagnation and feel as though they are not leaving a mark on the world in a meaningful way; they may have little connection with others and little interest in productivity and self-improvement.
ntegrity vs. Despair
From the mid-60s to the end of life, we are in the period of development known as late adulthood. Erikson's task at this stage is called integrity vs. despair. He said that people in late adulthood reflect on their lives and feel either a sense of satisfaction or a sense of failure. People who feel proud of their accomplishments feel a sense of integrity, and they can look back on their lives with few regrets. However, people who are not successful at this stage may feel as if their life has been wasted. They focus on what "would have," "should have," and "could have" been. They face the end of their lives with feelings of bitterness, depression, and despair.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Level 1: Preconventional
Throughout the preconventional level, a child's sense of morality is externally controlled. Children accept and believe the rules of authority figures, such as parents and teachers. A child with pre-conventional morality has not yet adopted or internalized society's conventions regarding what is right or wrong, but instead focuses largely on external consequences that certain actions may bring.
Stage 1: Obedience -and- Punishment Orientation
Stage 1 focuses on the child's desire to obey rules and avoid being punished. For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished; the worse the punishment for the act is, the more "bad" the act is perceived to be.
Stage 2: Instrumental Orientation
Stage 2 expresses the "what's in it for me?" position, in which right behavior is defined by whatever the individual believes to be in their best interest. Stage two reasoning shows a limited interest in the needs of others, only to the point where it might further the individual's own interests. As a result, concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsic respect, but rather a "you scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours" mentality. An example would be when a child is asked by his parents to do a chore. The child asks "what's in it for me?" and the parents offer the child an incentive by giving him an allowance.
Level 2: Conventional
Throughout the conventional level, a child's sense of morality is tied to personal and societal relationships. Children continue to accept the rules of authority figures, but this is now due to their belief that this is necessary to ensure positive relationships and societal order. Adherence to rules and conventions is somewhat rigid during these stages, and a rule's appropriateness or fairness is seldom questioned.
Stage 3: Good Boy, Nice Girl Orientation
In stage 3, children want the approval of others and act in ways to avoid disapproval. Emphasis is placed on good behavior and people being "nice" to others.
Stage 4: Law-and-Order Orientation
In stage 4, the child blindly accepts rules and convention because of their importance in maintaining a functioning society. Rules are seen as being the same for everyone, and obeying rules by doing what one is "supposed" to do is seen as valuable and important. Moral reasoning in stage four is beyond the need for individual approval exhibited in stage three. If one person violates a law, perhaps everyone would—thus there is an obligation and a duty to uphold laws and rules. Most active members of society remain at stage four, where morality is still predominantly dictated by an outside force.
Level 3: Postconventional
Throughout the postconventional level, a person's sense of morality is defined in terms of more abstract principles and values. People now believe that some laws are unjust and should be changed or eliminated. This level is marked by a growing realization that individuals are separate entities from society and that individuals may disobey rules inconsistent with their own principles. Post-conventional moralists live by their own ethical principles—principles that typically include such basic human rights as life, liberty, and justice—and view rules as useful but changeable mechanisms, rather than absolute dictates that must be obeyed without question. Because post-conventional individuals elevate their own moral evaluation of a situation over social conventions, their behavior, especially at stage six, can sometimes be confused with that of those at the pre-conventional level. Some theorists have speculated that many people may never reach this level of abstract moral reasoning.
Stage 5: Social-Contract Orientation
In stage 5, the world is viewed as holding different opinions, rights, and values. Such perspectives should be mutually respected as unique to each person or community. Laws are regarded as social contracts rather than rigid edicts. Those that do not promote the general welfare should be changed when necessary to meet the greatest good for the greatest number of people. This is achieved through majority decision and inevitable compromise. Democratic government is theoretically based on stage five reasoning.
Stage 6: Universal-Ethical-Principal Orientation
In stage 6, moral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles. Generally, the chosen principles are abstract rather than concrete and focus on ideas such as equality, dignity, or respect. Laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice, and a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws. People choose the ethical principles they want to follow, and if they violate those principles, they feel guilty. In this way, the individual acts because it is morally right to do so (and not because he or she wants to avoid punishment), it is in their best interest, it is expected, it is legal, or it is previously agreed upon. Although Kohlberg insisted that stage six exists, he found it difficult to identify individuals who consistently operated at that level.
How does family structure affect family life and relationships?
The number and the type of parents (e.g., biological, step) in the household, as well as the relationship between the parents, are consistently linked to a child's well-being.mong young children, for example, those living with no biological parents, or in single-parent households, are less likely than children with two biological parents to exhibit behavioral self-control, and more likely to be exposed to high levels of aggravated parenting, than are children living with two biological parents.hildren living with two married adults (biological or adoptive parents) have, in general, better health, greater access to health care, and fewer emotional or behavioral problems than children living in other types of families.Children whose parents are divorced also have lower academic performance, social achievement, and psychological adjustment than children with married parents.Research indicates, however, that the income differential only partially accounts for the negative effects on many areas of child and youth well-being (including health, educational attainment and assessments, behavior problems, and psychological well-being). Black children are significantly less likely than other children to be living with two married parents.
economic factors that affect family life
Increasing evidence supports the link between lower SES and negative psychological health outcomes, while more positive psychological outcomes such as optimism, self-esteem and perceived control have been linked to higher levels of SES for youth.
Evidence indicates that socioeconomic status affects family stability, including parenting practices and developmental outcomes for children (Trickett, Aber, Carlson, & Cicchetti, 1991).
Resilience is optimized when protective factors are strengthened at all socioecological levels, including individual, family and community levels (Benzies & Mychasiuk, 2009).Poverty is a reliable predictor of child abuse and neglect. Among low-income families, those with family exposure to substance use exhibit the highest rates of child abuse and neglect (Ondersma, 2002).Lower SES has been linked to domestic crowding, a condition that has negative consequences for adults and children, including higher psychological stress and poor health outcomes (Melki, Beydoun, Khogali, Tamim, & Yunis, 2004).Seven in 10 children living with a single mother are low income, compared to less than a third (32 percent) of children living in other types of family structures (Shriberg, 2013).All family members living in poverty are more likely to be victims of violence. Racial and ethnic minorities who are also of lower SES are at an increased risk of victimization (Pearlman, Zierler, Gjelsvik, & Verhoek-Oftedahl, 2004).Maintaining a strong parent-child bond helps promote healthy child development, particularly for children of low SES (Milteer, Ginsburg, & Mulligan, 2012).
impact of positive communication on families
Effective communication within the family can lead to better relationships between the members of the family. It must be built on a foundation of trust, listening and understanding. The more effectively your family can communicate together, the better. It will keep you open to share thoughts and feelings, coax expression out of your children and foster a safe home environment in which all members of your family can feel comfortable and secure in their relationships.The communication skills of expression, listening and conflict resolution will affect their school, social and eventual professional life.
Functions of a family
The primary function of the family is to ensure the continuation of society, both biologically through procreation, and socially through socialization. Given these functions, the nature of one's role in the family changes over time. From the perspective of children, the family instills a sense of orientation: The family functions to locate children socially, and plays a major role in their socialization.The family performs several essential functions for society. It socializes children, it provides emotional and practical support for its members, it helps regulate sexual activity and sexual reproduction, and it provides its members with a social identity. In addition, sudden or far-reaching changes in the family's structure or processes threaten its stability and weaken society.
Those who use a passive style of communication often keep their own feelings hidden from others. The goal with this type of communication is to avoid conflict. Rather than risk causing some sort of upset, the Passive Communicator will avoid expressing his or her own opinions and will accept those of others instead.
Aggressive communication has a lot to do with trying to protect one's own ideas and opinions. The Aggressive Communicator is so concerned with having his or her ideas accepted that they often do so at the expense of others. This person tends to look at every situation as if it is a battle, and he or she wants to win.
While passive communication and aggressive communication are very different from one another, they can actually be combined to create a third communication style. Passive-Aggressive Communicators tend to avoid obvious conflict, but there is still a need to manipulate the situation. In many cases, there is some sort of "payback" given in return for having their opinions overlooked. The individual appears to go along with decisions but does so in order to get revenge later.
The most effective communication style is assertive communication. This includes really sharing opinions, as well as advocating for one's own rights. Unlike the Aggressive Communicator, though, this person will not trample on the rights and opinions of others. Assertive Communicators are able to balance a respect for themselves, with a respect for others.
How to promote effective communication
Managing stress in the moment
Asserting yourself in a respectful way
Strategies for dealing with conflict
Avoiding - This can be effective when the issue is relatively unimportant and the risks of surfacing it outweigh the benefits of resolving it.
Accommodating - Useful when the issue is far more important to others than to you. However it isn't appropriate when your input and/or commitment is required and you can't give it.
Forcing - Good for when quick, decisive, action is called for or you need to implement an unpopular decision - but only if commitment isn't needed.
Compromising - Although giving everyone some of what they want isnt likely to lead to a satisfactory outcome, compromising can work when the goals are mutually exclusive
Collaborating - When time isn't an issue, working through difficult feelings and different perspectives can lead to a much better solution and stronger commitment to that solution
Deal with it
Think it through.
Talk it out, face to face.
Use a mediator if necessary
Apologize when appropriate.
Choose your battles.
Work to minimize conflict.
Work on your own communication skills.
Avoid troublemakers as much as possible.
Strategies for dealing with crisis
Recognize your own feelings. Also understand that your feelings are a normal reaction to an abnormal situation.
Talk about the experience. Talk is healing.
Reach out to friends and family for support. Try to connect with others, especially those who may have shared the same stressful experience. Form a support group.
Set small realistic goals to help tackle obstacles. Take one day at a time and be kind to yourself.
Get as much physical activity as possible. Exercise or learn relaxation techniques or meditation in order to relax and feel rejuvenated.
Structure you time. Schedule breaks for yourself. Redefine your priorities and focus your energy on them.
Get involved in something that is personally meaningful and important every day.
Give yourself time to heal.
Give someone a hug - touching is very important.
Focus On What's Important
Reduce Your Stress Response
Process Your Feelings
Take Care Of Yourself
Be Patient With Yourself
Seek Help If You Need To
What are the stages of grief?
Denial, guilt, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
How does the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) provide support to families of children with disabilities?
The Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) is dedicated to improving results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities ages birth through 21 by providing leadership and financial support to assist states and local districts.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) authorizes formula grants to states and discretionary grants to institutions of higher education and other non-profit organizations to support research, demonstrations, technical assistance and dissemination, technology and personnel development and parent-training and information centers.
What are parental rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education ACt (IDEA)?
The federal regulations for IDEA 2004 include a section (Subpart E) called Procedural Safeguards. These safeguards are designed to protect the rights of parents and their child with a disability and, at the same time, give families and school systems several mechanisms by which to resolve their disputes.
The right of parents to receive a complete explanation of all the procedural safeguards available under IDEA and the procedures in the state for presenting complaints
Confidentiality and the right of parents to inspect and review the educational records of their child
The right of parents to participate in meetings related to the identification, evaluation, and placement of their child, and the provision of FAPE (a free appropriate public education) to their child
The right of parents to obtain an independent educational evaluation (IEE) of their child
The right of parents to receive "prior written notice" on matters relating to the identification, evaluation, or placement of their child, and the provision of FAPE to their child
The right of parents to give or deny their consent before the school may take certain action with respect to their child
The right of parents to disagree with decisions made by the school system on those issues
The right of parents and schools to use IDEA's mechanisms for resolving disputes, including the right to appeal determinations
what are the stages of the family life cycle?
unattached adult, newly married adults, childbearing adults, preschool-age children, school-age children, teenage years, launching center, middle-aged adults, and retired adults.
Coupling or marriage.
Parenting: babies through adolescents.
Launching adult children.
Retirement or senior years.
What are some health issues related to midlife that may begin during the Launching stage of the family life cycle?
High blood pressure (hypertension).
Heart disease (coronary artery disease).
which agency of the US department of health and human services promotes the well being of older individuals by providing services and programs designed to help them live independently?
Administration for Community Living (ACL) in 2012
how do the foundational theories of development impact instruction?
Every experience and interaction has an impact on development in early childhood. Curriculum - Educators must plan a developmentally appropriate curriculum that enhances their students' logical and conceptual growth.
Instruction - Teachers must emphasize the critical role that experiences-or interactions with the surrounding environment-play in student learning. For example, instructors have to take into account the role that fundamental concepts, such as the permanence of objects, play in establishing cognitive structures.
what are health and wellness practices that optimize human growth and development?
soul mind and body that are in harmony
Awareness of your Self
Realization of your life's purpose
A deep connection with the God of your understanding
Freedom from fear of the future
what are the components of a lesson plan?
Objectives and Goals-The lesson's objectives must be clearly defined and in line with district and/or state educational standards
Anticipatory Set-Before you dig into the meat of your lesson's instruction, set the stage for your students by tapping into their prior knowledge and giving the objectives a context. In the Anticipatory Set section, you outline what you will say and/or present to your students before the direct instruction of the lesson begins.
Direct Instruction-When writing your lesson plan, this is the section where you explicitly delineate how you will present the lesson's concepts to your students. Your methods of Direct Instruction could include reading a book, displaying diagrams, showing real-life examples of the subject matter, or using props.
Guided Practice-Under your supervision, the students are given a chance to practice and apply the skills you taught them through direct instruction.The Guided Practice activities can be defined as either individual or cooperative learning.
Closure-In the Closure section, outline how you will wrap up the lesson by giving the lesson concepts further meaning for your students. Closure is the time when you wrap up a lesson plan and help students organize the information into meaningful context in their minds.
Independent Practice-Through homework assignments or other independent assignments, your students will demonstrate whether or not they absorbed the lesson's learning goals.Through Independent Practice, students have a chance to reinforce skills and synthesize their new knowledge by completing a task on their own and away from the teacher's guidance
Assessment and Follow-Up-The lesson doesn't end after your students complete a worksheet. The assessment section is one of the most important parts of all.This is where you assess the final outcome of the lesson and to what extent the learning objectives were achieved.
whats the language experience approach in early childhood education?
The Language Experience Approach (LEA) is a literacy development method that has long been used for early reading development with first language learners. It is also perfect for diverse classrooms. It combines all four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Working on the four language skills side by side aids fluency.
In the traditional Language Experience Approach (LEA) teachers use a shared experience - often involving photographs/images of that experience - as a prompt to collectively write a text with the learners. This text - often a series of photographs/images with captions - becomes a text that the group reads, re-reads, revises and extends. In the process, the teacher can draw learners' attention to phonetic and semantic patterns in the co-constructed text.
at what age can a baby grasp a rattle?
what kinds of growth and development occur at 12-24 months
During the second year, your child's growth in length will begin to slow down. On average, a child will grow 8 cm to 13 cm (3 to 5 inches) in length and gain 1.4 kg to 2.3 kg (3 lbs to 5 lbs) between 12 and 24 months of age.
By the end of the second year, your child will probably have reached the following developmental milestones:
using short phrases (2 to 4 words)
understanding what common household objects are for (e.g., spoon, telephone, comb)
following simple instructions
pointing to objects when they are named (e.g., "Where's the dog?")
pulling toys behind them and pushing wheeled toys
standing on tiptoe
beginning to run
kicking a ball
scribbling or colouring on a piece of paper
starting to sort objects by colour and shape
imitating the behaviour of others
starting make-believe play
building a block tower (4 blocks or more)
playing with other children (rather than just playing near them)
climbing up and down on furniture (without help)
going up and down the stairs (with support)
Helping your child grow and develop
During the second year, your child will begin to explore their independence. They are beginning to see themselves as a separate person, and will begin to test the limits of their world (and also test your limits as a parent). Although they may be more "clingy" earlier in their second year, this will decrease as the year comes to a close.
Help your child learn through play. At this stage, your child may be interested in make-believe play, having simple stories read to them, listening and dancing to music, sorting objects by colour and shape, pushing or pulling wheeled toys, building block towers, climbing up and down on furniture, moving objects from one container to another, colouring (which will be more like scribbling at this point), and finding hidden objects.
Foster your child's growing independence. Your child wants to be independent, but still needs help to do most things. Let them try to do things on their own, but supervise them closely and be ready to step in if they're getting frustrated or is at risk of hurting themselves.
Be patient. Near the end of the second year, be prepared for the beginning of those "terrible twos" temper tantrums. Stay calm and model the kind of behaviour you'd like your child to learn.
12 - 18 Months
Walk by himself
Pick up small objects, put them on top of one another, and put them in or dump them from containers
Feed herself with a spoon
Say 2 or 3 different words
Point to things or pictures when named
Walk up and down stairs with her hand held
Put 2 words together ("more juice")
Take off socks and shoes
Copy another child's play
Move his body in time to music
Tina and Maria, two sisters sharing an apartment, were having a heated discussion. Finally, Tina took a breath and said, "When you don't help me with the household chores, I feel like a maid. And that makes me upset and angry."
Question:Which of the following types of communication was Tina using?
In the following chart, click on the choices that reflect the characteristics of the fabric ramie.
High-quality ramie exhibits many desirable qualities. It absorbs water, and its brilliance is unsurpassed among similar fabrics, such as hemp. And, it is three times stronger than hemp.
Absorbent, Luster, and Strength
Up-to-date and adequate program planning in family and consumer sciences primarily requires
• A.continuous evaluation of program standards and objectives
• B.teachers with advanced degrees in family and consumer sciences
• C.use of professionally written teaching materials
• D.adequate budgets for curriculum materials
Option (A) is correct. Program planning in family and consumer sciences education requires constant revising to reflect changes and influences in society, families, and schools. The field of family and consumer sciences is always moving to results-oriented learning and seamless transitions from school to work.
Order as 1:Offers a benefit upon death and builds a cash value
Order as 2:Provides insurance for a specific period of time and has no remaining value
Order as 3:Provides flexibility in insurance protection and savings options
Order as 3:Provides flexibility in insurance protection and savings options
Order as 4:Provides protection as well as savings that are invested in equity products
• A. Universal life
• B. Variable
• C. Permanent life
• D. Term life
Correct Answer: C,D,A,B
The correct sequence is Permanent life, Term life, Universal life, and Variable. Permanent life insurance offers a benefit upon death and builds cash value. Term life insurance provides coverage for a specific period of time and has no remaining value. Universal life insurance has flexibility in insurance protection and savings options that are clearly separated. Variable insurance provides protection as well as savings that are invested in equity products.
The training of food service workers under the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) is under the jurisdiction of
• A.OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)
• B.USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)
• C.FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
• D.HHS (Health and Human Services)
Option (C) is correct. The training of food service workers under HACCP is the responsibility of the FDA.
The guest circulation pattern on a floor plan involves movement from the entry to the
• D.powder room
Option (D) is correct. The guest circulation pattern involves movement from the entry to the coat closet, powder room, and living and family rooms.
A teacher assigns numbers to students standing in line by tapping each student and calling out "First, second, third, fourth." Which of the following types of numbers is the teacher using?
Option (C) is correct. Ordinal numbers tell the order of things in relation to a set; e.g., first, second, third. Cardinal numbers, also known as counting numbers, indicate quantity. Nominal numbers, such as zip codes or area codes, are used solely for identification and have no relation to numerical values. Real numbers consist of rational and irrational numbers. Some real numbers are cardinal and some are not.
Which of the following types of plans shows the location of a house on a site and indicates features such as garages, walks, walls, and garden areas?
Option (B) is correct. The foundation plan shows the location of a house on a site as well as other features such as garages, walks, walls, and garden areas.
Which of the following is NOT a dietary antioxidant?
• C.Vitamin E
• D.Vitamin K
Option (D) is correct. Vitamin K is not an antioxidant.
Which of the following is the correct technique for rolling out a pie crust?
• A.Using the pastry blender to cut in the fat until the mixture forms a round, smooth ball
• B.Applying even pressure while gently moving the rolling pin backward and forward across the entire length of the dough
• C.Rolling the dough from the center out with a floured rolling pin, and turning the dough occasionally
• D.Rolling only one side of the dough, and placing the dough directly on the counter
Option (C) is correct. The correct procedure for rolling out pie crusts is to roll the dough from the center out with a floured rolling pin, occasionally turning the dough.
The purpose of including brand names on apparel is to
• A.guarantee good quality
• B.meet textile product labeling laws
• C.influence consumer buying habits
• D.inform the consumer of the parent company
Option (C) is correct. The most important benefit of brand is to influence consumer buying habits. A family brand name is used for products by building customer trust and loyalty to the family brand name; all products that use the brand can benefit. Building trust and loyalty leads to customers deciding whether to purchase a product or not, thereby influencing spending habits.
Which of the following is a purpose of the Family, Career and Community Leaders of America organization?
• A.To encourage individual and group interest in global conflict
• B.To identify the roles of men and women in today's workforce and society
• C.To provide opportunities for understanding conflict and minimizing responsibilities
• D.To provide opportunities for personal development and preparation for adult life
Option (D) is correct. The FCCLA's purposes are to: 1) provide opportunities for personal development and preparation for adult life; 2) strengthen the function of the family as a basic unit of society; 3) encourage democracy through cooperative action in the home and community; 4) encourage individual and group involvement in helping achieve global cooperation and harmony; 5) promote greater understanding between youth and adults; 6) provide opportunities for making decisions and for assuming responsibilities; 7) prepare for the multiple roles of men and women in today's society; and 8) promote family and consumer sciences and related occupations. FCCLA, the Family, Careers and Community Leaders Association, gives students the opportunity to participate in numerous individual and chapter programs that strengthen life skills, expand their leadership potential, and explore careers in family and consumer sciences.
Career Connection is a national program by Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) that helps students discover their strengths, target their career goals, and
• A.make, save, and spend money wisely
• B.learn skills to become strong family members
• C.initiate a plan for achieving the lifestyle they desire
• D.improve the quality of life in their communities
Option (C) is correct. The FCCLA Career Connection program helps youth link their options and skills so that they can find success in families, careers, and communities. Through individual, cooperative, and competitive activities, members discover their strengths, target career goals, and initiate a plan for achieving the lifestyle they desire.
Which of the following uses patterns of repetition and contrast to create visual interest with the purpose of moving the eye around the room?
Option (D) is correct. Rhythm is created by using the same color or shape at different intervals. For instance, rhythm can be established by using the same color in pillows, on a wall, and/or on a rug all in the same room. The repetition of color will carry the eye around the room.
Descision-making process Order
• A. Identify resources available
• B. List the alternatives to the problem
• C. Make the decision
• D. State the problem to solve
• E. Set goals to be accomplished
Correct Answer: D, E, A, B, C
Sequential order of the decision-marking process is as follows: 1. State the problem to solve. 2. Set goals to be accomplished. 3. Identify resources available 4. List all the alternatives to the problem. 5. Make the decision.
Which of the following sleeves with an angular shape under the arm is usually cut in one with the front and back of the garment?
Option (B) is correct. In contrast to the dolman sleeve, the kimono sleeve may be cut in one with the front and back of the garment or may be attached to the front and back with a vertical seam.
Which of the following is the first and most effective component of the waste hierarchy?
Option (B) is correct. The first and most effective component of the waste hierarchy is reducing the amount of waste created. Consumers are encouraged to reduce their waste by purchasing in bulk, buying items with less packaging, and switching to reusable, instead of single-use, items.
When substituting regular milk for buttermilk in a recipe, it is important to add
• B.lemon juice
• C.cake flour
• D.baking soda
Option (B) is correct. When substituting regular milk for buttermilk it is important to add a tablespoon of lemon juice or vinegar.
Using the table below, indicate whether or not each task is a responsibility of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP).
Statement Yes No
1.Monitor agricultural food production
2.Educate employees on their roles in producing safe food products
3.Help assist in the prevention of food-borne illnesses
4.Regulate the nutritional value of food
5.Ensure that unsafe food does not reach consumers
Every statement is true except statement 4, which is false. Responsibilities of the HACCP include: monitoring agricultural food production, educating employees on their roles in producing safe food products, helping assist in the prevention of food-borne illnesses, and ensuring that unsafe food does not reach consumers. Regulating the nutritional value of food is not a function of the HACCP.
Which of the following are barriers to resolving conflicts and negotiating an agreement?
• A. Control issues
• B. Active listening
• C. Physical reactions
• D. Competitive attitude
A, C, and D
Which of the following may be a cause of developmental delays in premature infants?
• C.Respiratory distress
• D.Digestive tract disorders
Option (C) is correct; of the options listed, developmental delays may be caused by respiratory distress.
According to Maslow's theory on the hierarchy of basic human needs, self actualization is the stage of development during which the individual does which of the following?
• A.Begins the search for self-identity
• B.Overcomes the need for affection from others
• C.Achieves self-acceptance and begins to develop his or her full potential
• D.Becomes aware of his or her contributions to society
Option (C) is correct. Self-actualization is the level of need, according to Maslow, that refers to a person's full potential and the realization of that potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be. Maslow believed that to reach this level of need, the person not only must achieve the previous needs but must master them.
Three-year-old Mark wanted to help his mother vacuum the floor. As he pulled the vacuum around the room, he bumped into a table, knocking over a lamp and breaking it. His mother declared, "I knew you were too little to do this!" Mark ran from the room crying and has not offered to help since then.
Question:For this child, which of Erickson's stages of human development is most likely to have been affected by the mother's reaction?
• A.Trust versus Mistrust
• B.Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
• C.Initiative versus Guilt
• D.Identity versus Confusion
Option (B) is correct. The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control. Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt.
Vanilla Ice Cream
Question:The addition of which following plating techniques is most likely to improve the food presented in the menu above?
• B.Focal point
Option (C) is correct. Color is an important part of plate presentation. For example, white fish served with white rice and creamed cauliflower may have a very good flavor. However, it will seem very monotonous and plain. And that will translate into how the customer perceives the food.
The direction in most woven fabrics that has the greatest give or stretch is referred to as the
Option (B) is correct. Bias is the direction in most woven fabrics that has the greatest give, or stretch.
It is recommended that people eat more whole-grain products to reduce the risk of heart disease. Which of the following parts of a grain kernel is rich in fiber?
Option (A) is correct. The outer layer of a kernel is bran and is rich in fiber.
Which of the following best describes a bull market?
• A.A declining market
• B.An advancing market
• C.A market characterized by low inflation and slow earnings growth
• D.A market in which bond values are higher than stock values
Option (B) is correct. A bull market is an advancing financial market of a group of securities in which prices are rising or are expected to rise. The term "bull market" is most often used to refer to the stock market, but it can be applied to anything that is traded, such as bonds, currencies, and commodities.
The greatest loss of nutrients during food preparation occurs when
• A.foods containing certain nutrients such as vitamin C, are soaked or cooked in water
• B.fresh vegetables are washed before being used
• C.raw fruits and vegetables are dehydrated
• D.foods are cooked whole rather than cut in smaller pieces
Option (A) is correct. When foods containing vitamin C are soaked or cooked in water, the greatest loss of nutrients occurs.
Southwestern Native American
• A. Succotash
• B. Cioppino
• C. Jambalaya
• D. Scrapple
• E. Poke
• F. Sopaipillas
Correct Answer: E, D, F, A, B, C
The correct order of response is E, D, F, A, B, C. Poke, a few sliced fish mixed with seaweed, onion, chiles, and soy sauce, is from Hawaii; Scrapple, a recipe for leftover pork scraps and cornmeal, originated with the Pennysylvania Dutch; Sopaipillas, a sweet fry bread with honey, is associated with Southwestern Native Americans; Succotash, a dish of beans and corn, is from New England; Cioppino, a fish stew, is from San Francisco; and Jambalaya, a Creole dish of rice, ham, seafood, chicken, and sausage, originated in Louisiana.
Which of the following are classified as simple carbohydrates?
• C.Whole grain breads
• D.Starchy vegetables
Option (A) is correct. Fruits are classified as simple carbohydrates because of how quickly they are digested and absorbed.
Which of the following foods are the best sources of calcium for individuals identified as lactose intolerant?
• A.Cantaloupe, zucchini, and kale
• B.Beef, pork, and chicken
• C.Sardines, dark green vegetables, and almonds
• D.Soy milk, rice milk, and orange juice
Option (C) is correct. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the foods listed are good sources of nondairy calcium.
Which of the following is a required document to establish employment authorization in the United States when hiring a United States citizen for employment?
A. social security
B. Driver's license
C. Credit card account number
D. School transcript
A. Social Security
Explain how environmental factors affect human growth and development throughout the life cycle.
Five main factors identified in contributing to growth and developments at early childhood are nutrition, parent's behaviours, parenting, social and cultural practices, and environment.
poverty, poor health, nutrition, and deficit care.
poverty, malnutrition, poor health and un-stimulating home environment
Fetuses exposed to lead and arsenic before birth may be born early or underweight and thus compromise child development.
-Access to clean and safe drinking water. -Management of diarrheal disease.
According to the World Health Organization, what are the three critical elements of healthy child development?
Care giving, environment, and nutrition
The early child period is considered to be the most important developmental phase throughout the lifespan. Healthy early child development (ECD)—which includes the physical, social/emotional, and language/cognitive domains of development, each equally important—strongly influences well-being, obesity/stunting, mental health, heart disease, competence in literacy and numeracy, criminality, and economic participation throughout life. What happens to the child in the early years is critical for the child's developmental trajectory and lifecourse.
Review, identify, and describe 3 environmental hazards that negatively impact development in children.
Indoor Air Pollution
Outdoor Air Pollution
Unsafe Drinking Water and Poor Sanitation
Infectious Disease Vectors
Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals
what are the core values in early childhood care and education adopted by the NAEYC?
Appreciate childhood as a unique and valuable stage of the human life cycle
Base our work on knowledge of how children develop and learn
Appreciate and support the bond between the child and family
Recognize that children are best understood and supported in the context of family, culture, community, and society
Respect the dignity, worth, and uniqueness of each individual (child, family member, and colleague)
Respect diversity in children, families, and colleagues
Recognize that children and adults achieve their full potential in the context of relationships that are based on trust and respect
strategies to redirect students behavior
Use a Verbal or Non-Verbal Signal
Move Closer to the Student
Involve Off-Task Students in the Lesson
informal assessments and screening measure for early childhood development
Methods of child assessment can be informal (conducting natural observations, collecting data and children's work for portfolios, using educator and teacher ratings) and formal (using assessment tools such as questionnaires and standardized testing). Both methods are effective and can help inform educators and parents about a child's progress.
Observations can be made with minimal or no intrusion into children's activities. Educators can observe all facets of development, including intellectual, linguistic, social-emotional, and physical development, on a regular basis.
Portfolios are a record of data that is collected through the work children have produced over a period of time. The collection clearly shows the progress of a child's development. Portfolios can be an important tool in helping facilitate a partnership between teachers and parents.
Educator Ratings are useful in assessing children's cognitive and language abilities as well as their social-emotional development. These ratings can be linked to other methods of assessment, such as standardized testing or other assessment tools. (See the next question below.)
Parent Ratings integrate parents into the assessment process. Parents who are encouraged to observe and listen to their child can help detect and target important milestones and behaviors in their child's development.
Standardized Tests are tests created to fit a set of testing standards. These tests are administered and scored in a standard manner and are often used to assess the performance of children in a program.
formal assessments and screening measures for early childhood development
Universal screening involves using low-cost tools that can be administered quickly and used repeatedly to gather data on each child in the classroom. While universal screening with all children is not yet a reality in most early education programs, early childhood teachers are moving in this direction.
Progress monitoring is a term used to describe any of a number of activities or approaches to data collection that focus on a child's learning over time and help to document and provide meaningful feedback on learning outcomes. Progress monitoring measures (e.g., Individual Growth and Development Indicators [IGDIs]) provide information about the rate and level of children's growth in key skills, which
systematic observation can allow for meaningful assessment of interests and needs
What is the social-learning theory of language development in young children?
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY (BANDURA)
Bandura's Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.
what is the mission of family and consumer science education?
The mission of Family and Consumer Sciences Education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in Family and Consumer Sciences by providing opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors needed for success, including:
Strengthening the well-being of individuals and families across the life span.
Becoming responsible citizens and leaders in family, community, and work settings.
Promoting optimal nutrition and wellness across the life span.
Managing resources to meet the material needs of individuals and families.
Balancing personal, home, family, and work lives.
Using critical and creative thinking skills to address problems in diverse family, community, and work environments.
Managing life, employment and careers successfully.
Functioning effectively as providers and consumers of goods and services.
Appreciating human worth and accepting responsibility for one's actions and success in family and work life.
what is the family and consumer sciences goal for individual and family strength?
1.Strengthen the well-being of individuals and families across the life span
2.Become responsible citizens and leaders for family, community, and work settings
3.Promote optimal nutrition and wellness across the life span
4.Manage resources to meet the material needs of individuals and families
5.Balance personal, home, family, and work lives
6.Use critical and creative thinking skills to address problems in diverse family, community, and work environments
7.Foster successful life management, employment, and career development
8.Function as providers and consumers of goods and services for families
9.Appreciate human worth and accept responsibility for one's actions and success in family and work life
What are some organizations affiliated with family and consumer sciences and what is their value?
American Association of Family & Consumer Sciences (AAFCS)
Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE), FCS Education Division
Council of Administrators of Family and Consumer Sciences
Family & Consumer Sciences Education Association (FCSEA)
International Federation for Home Economics (IFHE)
National Association of State Administrators of Family & Consumer Sciences (NASAFACS)
National Association of Teacher Educators for Family and Consumer Sciences (NATEFACS)
National Association of Teachers of Family & Consumer Sciences (NATFACS)
National Extension Association of Family & Consumer Sciences (NEAFCS)
AAFCS members, affiliates, and units are vital to helping raise awareness for family and consumer sciences.
8 U.N. Consumer Bill of Rights
The right to safety
The right to be informed
The Right to Choose
The right to be heard
The right to satisfaction of basic needs
The right to redress
The right to consumer education
The right to a healthy environment
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C)
set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics.
Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA)
The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA), September 20, 1977 (and as subsequently amended) is a consumer protection amendment, establishing legal protection from abusive debt collection practices.
to eliminate abusive practices in the collection of consumer debts, to promote fair debt collection, and to provide consumers with an avenue for disputing and obtaining validation of debt information in order to ensure the information's accuracy.
It is sometimes used in conjunction with the Fair Credit Reporting Act.
Fair Credit Reporting Act
the FCRA regulates the collection, dissemination, and use of consumer information, including consumer credit information.
Truth in Lending Act (TILA) of 1968
it requires uniform or standardized disclosure of costs and charges so that consumers can shop.
Fair Credit Billing Act (FCBA)
Its purpose is to protect consumers from unfair billing practices and to provide a mechanism for addressing billing errors in "open end" credit accounts, such as credit card or charge card accounts.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA), also known as the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999
commercial banks, investment banks, securities firms, and insurance companies were allowed to consolidate. Furthermore, it failed to give to the SEC or any other financial regulatory agency the authority to regulate large investment bank holding companies.
Federal Trade Commission (FTC) 1914
investigates issues raised by reports from consumers and businesses, pre-merger notification filings, congressional inquiries, or reports in the media. These issues include, for instance, false advertising and other forms of fraud. FTC investigations may pertain to a single company or an entire industry.
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB)
jurisdiction includes banks, credit unions, securities firms, payday lenders, mortgage-servicing operations, foreclosure relief services, debt collectors and other financial companies operating in the United States.
the Bureau's priorities are mortgages, credit cards and student loans
writes and enforces rules for financial institutions, examines both bank and non-bank financial institutions, monitors and reports on markets, as well as collects and tracks consumer complaints
Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA)
is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed and veterinary products.