Body of five directors that held executive power in France; lasted from November 1795 to November 1799; unpopular in France because it seemed as though it would end the Revolution
Reign of Terror
Period lasting from June 1793 to July 1794 during which thousands of citizens were killed due to being suspected of being against the republic; supported by Robespierre, who said that the only way the utopia could be kept was to eliminate all who were against them
Committee of Public Safety
Political body in France from September 1793 to July 1794; provided defense for the nation against its foreign and domestic enemies and to oversee the other parts of France's executive government
Jacobin French politician who had a major influence on the Revolution; known as "the incorruptible"; strongly supported the terror; executed in July 1794, out of fear that he would execute his own supporters
Jacobin and close associate of Robespierre; executed in April 1794 because he began questioning the extremes Robespierre went to during the Terror
Assembly formed by the Third Estate; joined also by the clergy and, eventually, the nobility; main goals were to overthrow the monarchy and to create a new constitution
Assembly that met when the king said so (hadn't met for 175 years prior to the beginning of the Revolution); each of the three estates had one vote, and as a result, the responsibility of taxes was put on the Third Estate
Levee en Masse
A draft, so to speak, for all able-bodied men to defend the nation; important because it put the responsibility on all, rather than one social class of people
Form of government in which officials were elected by the people and the elected officials worked to serve the people; replaced the French monarchy in 1792
Form of government in which there is a written constitution that acknowledges a monarch as head of state; France's government type until 1792
Group of working-class citizens who, unhappy with the inaction of the Legislative Assembly, attacked the residence of the king, causing the Legislative Assembly to allow the people to vote
List of problems compiled by the three estates; used so they could be discussed at the Estates General meeting
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Document saying what political rights citizens have; passed by the National Assembly in August 1789
Highest of the three estates; made up less than 1% of population and had to pay very little in taxes
Second-highest of three estates; made up about 2% of population and were usually exempt from paying taxes
Lowest of three estates; made up 97% of the population and had to pay ludicrous amounts of money in taxes
Division within the Third Estate; similar to the modern-day middle class
Louis XVI's financial minister; fired in July 1789, which made the citizens very unhappy
When more money is printed and the value of that currency goes down, and prices go up; major problem that contributed to the start of the Revolution
When France had a poor wheat production, it caused this, which made thousands of members of the Third Estate very hungry
When textile production went down, it caused this in a large part of the population, worsening France's already poor state
Tennis Court Oath
Took place on a tennis court outside of Versailles; Third Estate and clergy decided that they wanted a constitution, and that they would work to have one
Because Louis XVI put so much money into funding this, France increased its debt by a lot more in the late eighteenth century
Fall of the Bastille
Citizens stormed the Bastille (A prison and armory) on July 14, 1789 due to the firing of Jaques Neckar; considered to be what set off the Revolution
March to Versailles
Women marched from Paris to Versailles; killed the guards and stuck their heads on sticks and attacked the palace; forced the royal family to move to Paris, putting them at the mercy of the people
Wife of Louis XVI; universally disliked by the French citizens for her extravagant fashion sense and apparent indifference to the struggles of the lower classes; executed along with her husband
King of France; very ineffective leader due to his indecisiveness; executed on January 21, 1793 after being charged with treason
Political faction stemming from the Jacobins; did not support Parisian military; did not want Louis XVI executed because they thought he would become a martyr
Political faction stemming from the Jacobins; very much supported Parisian military; wanted Louis XVI executed and won by a very narrow majority
Poland, the Dutch Republic, and the Austrian Netherlands
Three other countries had revolutions during this time period, though none of them as influential as the French Revolution. Can you say which three countries?
Was the Legislative Assembly a very effective government?
They want the Third Estate to be equal to the upper classes
What is it that the Cahiers, the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and "What is the Third Estate?" have in common?
They were able to achieve the government they wanted
What was accomplished by the National Assembly's action abolishing feudalism?
Officials were elected, taxes were unified, and the king no longer had the power to veto laws
Can you summarize the National Assembly's administrative reorganization of the government during the first two years of meetings?
Civil Constitution of the Church
Constitution that made there be pay scales for the clergy and provided the voters with the ability to elect their clergy
Paper currency used during the early parts of the Revolution; extremely subject to inflation
Louis XVI thought a war with Austria and Prussia would end the Revolution and restore power to the monarchy; the monarchy was abolished
What did Louis XVI and the Revolutionaries expect from the war with Austria and Prussia? What was the actual result?
The new assembly that was elected after France had a constitution
What was the Legislative Assembly?
It became a constitutional monarchy, which gave the people some power and rights
How did the new republic replace the monarchy?
He wanted a government for the people
What does Hunt mean when she says Robespierre was "devoutly republican"?
Hundreds of people were killed in September 1793 due to being suspected of being against the republic
What were the "September massacres"?
A new calendar was formed, as were new schools
What are a few things that the Legislative Assembly did to decrease the church's influence?
What was the main "religion" during the French Revolution, since traditional churches were so strongly opposed by the government?
The idea of overthrowing a government and replacing it with something else; main idea of nearly all revolutions