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For chapter 19 of the Hunt textbook

The Directory

Body of five directors that held executive power in France; lasted from November 1795 to November 1799; unpopular in France because it seemed as though it would end the Revolution

Reign of Terror

Period lasting from June 1793 to July 1794 during which thousands of citizens were killed due to being suspected of being against the republic; supported by Robespierre, who said that the only way the utopia could be kept was to eliminate all who were against them

Committee of Public Safety

Political body in France from September 1793 to July 1794; provided defense for the nation against its foreign and domestic enemies and to oversee the other parts of France's executive government


Jacobin French politician who had a major influence on the Revolution; known as "the incorruptible"; strongly supported the terror; executed in July 1794, out of fear that he would execute his own supporters


Jacobin and close associate of Robespierre; executed in April 1794 because he began questioning the extremes Robespierre went to during the Terror

National Assembly

Assembly formed by the Third Estate; joined also by the clergy and, eventually, the nobility; main goals were to overthrow the monarchy and to create a new constitution

Estates General

Assembly that met when the king said so (hadn't met for 175 years prior to the beginning of the Revolution); each of the three estates had one vote, and as a result, the responsibility of taxes was put on the Third Estate

Levee en Masse

A draft, so to speak, for all able-bodied men to defend the nation; important because it put the responsibility on all, rather than one social class of people


Form of government in which officials were elected by the people and the elected officials worked to serve the people; replaced the French monarchy in 1792

Constitutional monarchy

Form of government in which there is a written constitution that acknowledges a monarch as head of state; France's government type until 1792


Group of working-class citizens who, unhappy with the inaction of the Legislative Assembly, attacked the residence of the king, causing the Legislative Assembly to allow the people to vote


List of problems compiled by the three estates; used so they could be discussed at the Estates General meeting

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Document saying what political rights citizens have; passed by the National Assembly in August 1789


Highest of the three estates; made up less than 1% of population and had to pay very little in taxes


Second-highest of three estates; made up about 2% of population and were usually exempt from paying taxes

Third Estate

Lowest of three estates; made up 97% of the population and had to pay ludicrous amounts of money in taxes


Division within the Third Estate; similar to the modern-day middle class

Jaques Neckar

Louis XVI's financial minister; fired in July 1789, which made the citizens very unhappy


When more money is printed and the value of that currency goes down, and prices go up; major problem that contributed to the start of the Revolution

Bread shortage

When France had a poor wheat production, it caused this, which made thousands of members of the Third Estate very hungry


When textile production went down, it caused this in a large part of the population, worsening France's already poor state

Tennis Court Oath

Took place on a tennis court outside of Versailles; Third Estate and clergy decided that they wanted a constitution, and that they would work to have one

American Revolution

Because Louis XVI put so much money into funding this, France increased its debt by a lot more in the late eighteenth century

Fall of the Bastille

Citizens stormed the Bastille (A prison and armory) on July 14, 1789 due to the firing of Jaques Neckar; considered to be what set off the Revolution

March to Versailles

Women marched from Paris to Versailles; killed the guards and stuck their heads on sticks and attacked the palace; forced the royal family to move to Paris, putting them at the mercy of the people

Marie Antoinette

Wife of Louis XVI; universally disliked by the French citizens for her extravagant fashion sense and apparent indifference to the struggles of the lower classes; executed along with her husband

Louis XVI

King of France; very ineffective leader due to his indecisiveness; executed on January 21, 1793 after being charged with treason


Political faction stemming from the Jacobins; did not support Parisian military; did not want Louis XVI executed because they thought he would become a martyr


Political faction stemming from the Jacobins; very much supported Parisian military; wanted Louis XVI executed and won by a very narrow majority

Poland, the Dutch Republic, and the Austrian Netherlands

Three other countries had revolutions during this time period, though none of them as influential as the French Revolution. Can you say which three countries?


Was the Legislative Assembly a very effective government?

They want the Third Estate to be equal to the upper classes

What is it that the Cahiers, the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and "What is the Third Estate?" have in common?

They were able to achieve the government they wanted

What was accomplished by the National Assembly's action abolishing feudalism?

Officials were elected, taxes were unified, and the king no longer had the power to veto laws

Can you summarize the National Assembly's administrative reorganization of the government during the first two years of meetings?

Civil Constitution of the Church

Constitution that made there be pay scales for the clergy and provided the voters with the ability to elect their clergy


Paper currency used during the early parts of the Revolution; extremely subject to inflation

Louis XVI thought a war with Austria and Prussia would end the Revolution and restore power to the monarchy; the monarchy was abolished

What did Louis XVI and the Revolutionaries expect from the war with Austria and Prussia? What was the actual result?

The new assembly that was elected after France had a constitution

What was the Legislative Assembly?

It became a constitutional monarchy, which gave the people some power and rights

How did the new republic replace the monarchy?

He wanted a government for the people

What does Hunt mean when she says Robespierre was "devoutly republican"?

Hundreds of people were killed in September 1793 due to being suspected of being against the republic

What were the "September massacres"?

A new calendar was formed, as were new schools

What are a few things that the Legislative Assembly did to decrease the church's influence?


What was the main "religion" during the French Revolution, since traditional churches were so strongly opposed by the government?

Political re-education

The idea of overthrowing a government and replacing it with something else; main idea of nearly all revolutions

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