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artificial selection

selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits

fossil record

sequence in which fossils appear within layers of sedimentary rocks




geographic distribution of species


similarity in characteristics that results from common ancestry

vestigial organs

structures that are of marginal or no importance to organism


group of individuals in same species living in same place at same time

gene pool

total collection of genes in a population at any time


change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA

bottleneck effect

genetic drift from drastic reduction in population size, surviving population no longer representative of original population

founder effect

genetic drift when few individuals isolated from larger population, composition of new population's gene pool not reflective of original population

sexual dimorphism

marked differences between secondary sex characteristics of males and females

sexual selection

form of natural selection where individuals with certain characteristics more likely than other individuals to obtain mates

balancing selection

natural selection maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypic forms in population

heterozygous advantage

heterozygous individuals have more reproductive success than homozygotes


relative contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of next generation

descent with modification

all life is connected by common ancestry, descendants have accumulated adaptions to changing environments over time

hardy weinberg equilibrium

allele and genotype frequencies of a population remain constant if population is large, mating is random, and no mutation, gene flow, or natural selection

antibiotic resistance

directional selection resulting from excessive or incorrect use of antibiotics

preservation of variation

variation preserved by hiding recessive alleles

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