Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, March 6 from 3–4 PM PST
Upgrade to remove ads
Social Psychology final exam ch. 11-13 unit 4 Matthew Timmins MSU
Terms in this set (78)
any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person
ability to experience the events and emotions the way another person experiences them (put yourself in their shoes)
idea that engaging in aggression reduces future aggression
range of social and emotional traits, including being friendly, polite, good-natured, pleasant, and helpful toward others
a person's reluctance to get "too close" to another group
intentional behavior aimed at causing physical harm or psychological pain to another person (against that person's will)
unjustified negative or harmful action toward the members of a group simply because of their membership in that group
"slights," indignities, and put-downs that many minorities routinely encounter
social identity threat
threat elicited when people perceive that others are evaluating them as a member of their group instead of as an individual
emotional connection and investment with characters or celebrities of other social groups
hypothesis associated with helping behavior and empathy for a classmate in Toi and Batson (1982)
form of media found to increase prosocial and aggressive behavior
Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment
when children observed adults being aggressive in this experiment, the children also behaved aggressively
when treated as though they are inferior, white participants performed worse supporting this phenomenon
urban overload hypothesis
hypothesis that explains why urban dwellers are less likely to engage in prosocial behavior; can occur rapidly
social exchange theory
we determine if we will help others based on costs, benefits, and reciprocity
The view that social groups will reduce prejudice
idea that frustration (perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal) increases the probability of an aggressive response
dual hormone hypothesis
testosterone relates to dominance - seeking bx only when stress hormone, cortisol is not elevated.
What is the first step in determining whether or not to help in an emergency?
notice the event
classroom designed to decrease prejudice through making small, diverse groups of students rely on each other to learn the material
realistic conflict hypothesis suggest that these increase when resources are scarce
what are the 3 requirements for an effective apology?
be genuine; take full responsibility; reassure the person you will not do it again
What is the I(3) theory of aggression?
Instigation, Impellance, Inhibition
the use of this substance and expectation of its effects increase the likelihood of aggression what is this substance?
What did Darwin realize was wrong with the evolutionary theory?
How can it explain altruism?
If people's overriding goal is to ensure their own survival, why would they help others at a cost to themselves?
Genes promoting selfish bx should be more likely to be passed on
idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection
________ chances ___________ will be passed along by ensuring that genetic relatives have children
Natural selection should favor_________ directed toward __________
altruistic acts ; genetic relatives
Some research supports the idea of
People are more likely to help a _________ in a life-or-death situation than a ____________
genetic relative ; non-relative
_________ from emergency responders also supports kin selection
expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future
Some researchers suggest the feeling of ________ evolved to help regulate reciprocity
____________ is the group-level extension of _____________
Group selection ; natural selection
__________ favors those who kept their groups alive
_____________ says people decide how to interact with one another based on personal costs and benefits
social exchange theory
We pay a cost now expecting help later ________
_______ is an investment in our future
feelings of self-worth
We become less likely to help when it may be costly; examples include:
the idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person for purely altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
When we are ____ on empathy, social exchange _____
low; plays a role
Toi & Batson (1982)
Listen to radio recording (supposedly randomly selected)
Story of "Carol" who was in an accident and is failing, especially intro psych, from the accident
Toi & Benson: Consider it from her (Carol) perspective
Toi & Benson: Consider it from an objective perspective
Toi and Batson 1982
* Researcher gives you a letter Carol agreed to write asking for help in intro psych
* She's in your class, may see her later (high cost for not helping)
* She's not in your class, won't see her later (low cost for not helping)
* What would you do?
the qualities that cause an individual to help others in a wide variety of situations
in personality alone don't predict helping
What are some other critical factors when it comes to altruistic personality?
Are men or women more likely to help in the following situation?
* dramatic, heroic act like storming the cockpit of United 93 flight to fight terrorists
men more likely
Are men or women more likely to help in the following situation?
* Being involved in a long-term helping relationship, such as assisting a disabled neighbor with household chores
women more likely
group with which an individual identifies as a member; Prosocial bx more likely to be motivated by empathy
any group with which an individual does not identify; Prosocial bx more likely to be motivated by social exchange
Suppose you are walking down the street one day when you see a man suddenly fall down and cry out with pain. He rolls up his pants leg, revealing a bandaged shin that is bleeding heavily. What would you do?
* Small towns:
- 50% of people who walked by stopped and offered to help the man
* Large cities:
- Only 15% of passersby stopped to help
* Similar results found in the US, Canada, Israel, Australia, Turkey, Great Britain, and Sudan
Urban Overload Hypothesis
if you put urban dwellers in a calmer, less stimulating environment, they would be as likely as anyone else to reach out to others
Oishi and colleagues (2007)
Complete a trivia competition with 4 other participants
Winner gets $10 gift card
Can help each other, but that reduces likelihood that helper will win
1 of the participants sighing and commenting that they don't know any of the trivia answers
Oishi and colleagues 2007
Participants change groups after each task
Participant stays in the same group
Participants in the "stable" group were more likely to help than the "transient" group
finding that the greater the number of bystanders who observe an emergency, the less likely any one is to help.
Latané and Darley (1970)
considered why no one helped
Greitrmeyer & Osswald (2010)
Play video games for 10 minutes; Then participate in an "unrelated" study
take care of a small group of beings and help them find the exit (helping condition)
classic game (neutral condition)
Greitrmeyer & Osswald 2010
"Unrelated" study provides the opportunity to help experimenter, but not what participants thought was the study:
Pick up a cup of pencils she accidentally knocked over
Volunteering to participate in future studies w/o compensation
Intervene when experimenter's ex-boyfriend comes into the lab and starts harassing her
Hostile (or Reactive) Aggression
aggression stemming from feelings of anger
aggression done as a means to achieve some goal other than causing pain
Who is more aggressive- males or females?
According to evolutionary theory
* Males bx aggressively to secure status
* Female chooses the male who offers greatest protection and resources
* Males aggress "jealousy" to ensure their paternity
testosterone relates to aggression only when there are oppurtinities for reproduction
testosterone relates to dominance -seeking behavior only when the stress hormone, cortisol, is not elevated
cooperative strategies for survival
herds vulnerable, hyperalert and respond to threat with force to decrease likelihood of theft
Culture of honor
men respond aggressively to restore status when man's reputation for toughness is on the line.
harming another person through the manipulation of relationships
Social-Cognitive Learning Theory
* people learn social bx in large part through the process of observational learning:
- observation and imitation of others
- cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs
Frustration - Aggression Theory
* the idea that frustration (the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal) increases the probability of an aggressive response
* Originally developed in 1939
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
PSY 3623 EXAM 4 (CH. 11-13) - Timmins
Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology
ITP: Human development
Chapter 7: Cognition
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Social Psychology - Chapter 11
Social: Ch. 11
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
psy exam 3
Behavior Modification Nafaya MSSTATE FALL 2019 Tes…
Learning Theories Test 6
learning theories- test 6