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Chapter 27 Cold War and Postwar Changes 1945-1970
Terms in this set (95)
a nation that appears to be sovereign, but is actually under the control of another nation.
a competition between nations to have the most powerful armaments
Policy of Containment
US policy to keep communism within its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggressive moves
the policy of making the military power of the US and its allies so strong that no enemy would attack for fear of retaliation
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
to set free
(weapons) deriving destructive energy from the release of atomic energy
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism
German Democratic Republic
In response to the formation of a united West Germany, the Soviets created this territory, also known as East Germany
United States statesman who promoted the Marshall Plan and helped establish NATO (1893-1971)
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for the purpose to provide mutual aid in case of an attack it included Belgium, Luxembourg, France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Iceland, Canada, West Germany, Turkey, Greece and the U.S.
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of war torn Europe (1948-1952)
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania- use an anagram
capital of Germany located in eastern Germany
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand. Its purpose was to stem Soviet aggression in the East.
Federal Republic of Germany
Eventual name of postwar West Germany; created by the merging of the zones of occupation held by France, Britain, and the United States.
(the Central Treaty Org.) included Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, G.B., and U.S. it was intended to prevent Soviet Union from expanding to the South.
leader of the Soviet Union, serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, following the death of Joseph Stalin
industry that requires a large capital investment and that produces items used in other industries. Includes the manufacture of machines and equipment for factories and mines
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor. KHRUSHCHEV UNDOING STALIN'S RUTHLESS POLICIES
increased or intensified in value or beauty or quality
adj. Being the only one of its kind; belonging to only one person or group.
a Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991
a republic in central Europe
This man wrote One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich after Khrushchev began to allow for literature to be published, especially if it damned Stalin, which his work did
a former republic in central Europe
a republic in southeastern Europe on the Adriatic coast of the Balkan Peninsula
Hungarian Communist Party leader who attempted to end association with the USSR which lead to the 1956 Hungarian revolt.
Civil war broke out in Yugoslavia. As the Communist regime fell, Yugoslavia was divided up into Serbia, Bosnia-Hergezovenia, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovenia. Fighting soon broke out inside these areas, as Serbs attempted to gain control of the entire territory. The Serbs instituted a policy of "ethnic" cleansing, whose goal was to force non-Serbs out of all areas that the Serbs conquered.
Communist Party Secretary of Czechoslovakia; loosens strict rules; permits criticism of government; assures loyalty to USSR; gets kicked out. He was responsible for The "Prague Spring" of but it was forestalled in 1968 when THE SOVIET ARMY INVADED CZECHOSLOVAKIA. HE SAID HE WANTED TO CREATE "SOCIALISM WITH A HUMAN FACE".
Yugoslav statesman who led the resistance to German occupation during World War II and established a communist state after the war (1892-1980) RESISTED STALIN'S CONTROL
a republic in central Europe
a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
An ecomony where Americans have money to spend on consumer goods such as clothes
a group of countries in special alliance
Wages as compared to the cost of living
Women's Liberation Movement
1960s to present. argued that the traditional family form is oppressive for women and children. takes away womens independence and that we need to start looking at families differently (REINVISIONING THE FAM)
Civil Rights Movement
a social movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s, in which people organized to demand equal rights for African Americans and other minorities. People worked together to change unfair laws. They gave speeches, marched in the streets, and participated in boycotts.
return to an original state
the least possible
First space satellite
a republic in western Europe
European Economic Community
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Christian Democratic Union
Governed FRG 1949-69 - emphasis on moral idealism and ethical purpose. Support from and for Protestants and Catholics equally. Attracted middle class and business persons.
John F. Kennedy
president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.
British, American and French zone of Germany and was democratic.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Simone de Beauvoir
French feminist and existentialist and novelist (1908-1986)
a country with both military powers and political influence
Berlin Air Lift
tactic used to overcome a Soviet blockade
the city of Berlin, which was located deep inside the Soviet zone of a postwar divided Germany was itself divided into four (4) zones
To stop the spread of communism, the US adopted a policy toward the Soviet Union of CONTAINMENT (keep it within its borders)
The Truman Doctrine was formulated, initially, as a response to the 1946 withdrawal of BRITISH AID TO GREECE.
In response to Nagy's declaration of Hungarian independence, Khrushchev reacted by ATTACKING BUDAPEST.
NIKITA KRUSHCHEV ordered the Berlin wall to be built in 1961, because the prosperity of the west was causing people to flee the eastern side.
Germany was divided into 4 zones after WWII. Each of the allies had a zone- FRANCE, USSR, BRITAIN AND UNITED STATES.
How did the end of WWII set the stage for the Cold War?
The yalta and potsdam conferences were held, where the fate of Eastern Europe was discussed...
How did the Truman Doctrine an Containment Policy define US. foreign policy during the cold war?
The Truman doctrine stated that the US would provide aid for any country that was under threat of communism. The containment policy was created to keep communism within borders, sacrificing eastern Europe. These 2 policies helped define foreign policy during the cold war for example, the US. gave aid to Turkey when it was under the threat of communism. The US also took part in the Vietnam war in part due to the Domino Theory, but also to keep communism withing its borders.
How did the US get involved in Vietnam. What factors made it difficult for them to achieve a solid victory?
the US got involved in Vietnam because of the domino theory... It was difficult for them to achieve a solid victory due to GUERRILLA TACTICS...
How did Stalin and the capitalists west regard each other after WWII?
Stalin still feared the capitalist ... why?
What did the US and GB believe should happen with the liberated nations of Eastern Europe?
They believed they should determine their own governments, with free elections
after freeing Eastern Europe from the Nazis, what course of action did the Soviet army follow?
The Soviet army remained in those conquered areas.
How did the Korean War begin in 1950?
I The Korean war happened to stop North Korea (communist) from taking control of South Korea (Republic). US tried their hardest to stop the spread of Communism. So North Korea started attacking South Korea and with US help South Korea was protected from coming a Communist country
What organization was formed to stem agression in the East?
Why did Khrushchev build the Berlin Wall?
Niikita Khrushchev seek to stop the flow of refugees out of East Germany to West Berlin?
Name the event in 1962 that brought the world close to nuclear war?
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
How could geographic factors have determined whether a country joined Nato or Warsaw Pact?
Warsaw Pact countries were closer to the Soviet Union;
NATO countries were in Western Europe and North America.
What was the intention of the Marshall Plan?
It provided financial aid to Europe to spur economic recovery and help resist Communist aggression.
Why was the fate of Berlin important to the Allies and the Soviets?
It was the first major dispute of the Cold War. The Soviets opposed the idea of an independent West Germany and wanted to force the Allies out of West Berlin. The Allies believed that if they lost control of their zones in Berlin, West Germany would also fall to the communists.
What was the goal of the Super Powers in the Arms Race?
Each wanted to build the most intimidation arsenal of weapons.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, which took the world to the brink of nuclear war prompted some rethinking on the issue.
How did the Cold War differ from other conflicts?
it was a long struggle between superpowers that stopped short of all out war, probably due to the fear of a possible nuclear war.
Why of the post WWII year considered a turning point?
The rivalry between the US and the soviet Union intensified and spread. Cold War alliances and conflicts defined the postwar era.
What impact did the conflict between the superpowers have on the rest of the world?
The US and the soviet Union each used military and economic id to win the support of other nations. Other nations became involved in Cold War alliances and conflicts through out the 1950s and 60s.
Did Americans have reason to worry about the soviet development of Sputnik I ?
Some concerns were justified because of the potentially deadly nature of the arms race.
Why were Cuban fighters sent to invade Cuba rather than American troops?
The Cuban exiles could incite internal revolt against Castro, thus enabling the US to avoid direct conflict with Cuba and the soviet Union, while achieving the goal of toppling a communist supported regime.
Why were the US able to place nuclear weapons in Turkey?
Both Turkey and US were part of the NATO alliance.
why did the US assume global responsibility for containing communism?
Because the US was the leading Western power at the time.
how did the Cold War confrontations affect the decision of the US to move against Fidel Castro in Cuba?
The US didn't want a socialist regime with soviet contacts so close to its mainland.
Why did the Soviet Union and the US become rivals?
they each had different ideologies and wanted global leadership
Why would the Soviets be so disturbed by people fleeing their sector?
The large number of people leaving East Berlin was bad for the economy. It reduced the labor force as as well as the number of consumers to support the local economy.
How did the separation of East and West Berlin y the wall affect the economic life of the city?
it harmed the economy greatly because workers had to give up jobs in West Berlin since they couldn't travel there.
is an economy based on GOVERNMENT ownership and economical control.
is an economy based on private individuals and free market shape economy.
Why did the Soviet leader vote Krushchev out of power?
his failure to increase agricultural output, low production of consumer goods, and his plans to place missiles in Cuba weakened his political power.
What caused the battles between the Eastern European states and the Soviet Union?
the soviet Union, a foreign power, imposed communism, and therefore control, on Eastern Europe.
Name two countries in Eastern Europe that resisted Soviet dominance? Why?
Albania and Yugoslavia-
they had strong communist governments already and were able to resist Stalin's demands.
How did Dubcek create Socialism with a human Face in Czechoslovakia?
He introduced reforms, including freedom of speech and press and freedom to travel abroad: he relaxed censorship and pursued an independent foreign policy. He also promised gradual democratization of the Czechoslovakian system.
How did Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn aid in Khrushchev's de-stalinization of the Soviet Union?
Many people could identify with the character in Solzhenitsyn's novel "One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich" as a symbol of suffering they had endured under Stalin
Unlike the United States Marshall Plan, the soviet Union's Council for Mutual Economic Assistance filed because THE SOVIETS COULD NOT AFFORD TO PROVIDE LARGE AMOUNTS OF FOREIGN AID.
The US and Great Britain believed that the liberated nations of Eastern Europe should HOLD FREE ELECTIONS TO DETERMINE THEIR FUTURES
Even after Stalin's death in 1953, the Soviet Union made it clear that it would not ALLOW EASTERN EUROPEAN SATELLITES TO BECOME INDEPENDENT OF CONTROL
A protest campaign led by Czechoslovakian writer LED TO THE RESIGNATION OF NOVOTNY.
Even though the US was able to keep South Korea from becoming communist, the Korean War confirmed US fears that COMMUNISM WAS SPREADING.
Krushchev wanted to put nuclear weapons on Cuba, because the US had nuclear weapons in TURKEY.