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Terms in this set (95)
Layers of an artery
tunica intima (elastic sheath), tunica media (muscle/elastic tissue), and tunica adventitia (CT)
Layers of a vein
tunica intima(elastic sheath), tunica media (muscle/elastic tissue), and tunica adventitia (CT)
Structural difference between arteries and veins
Veins have valves
Veins have less smooth muscle
Left side of the heart is oxygenated/deoxygenated?
Right side of the heart is oxygenated/deoxygenated?
Blood flows in a circuit at rate of __________ L/min
Components of circulation (3)
Transporting nutrients to the tissues
Transporting waste products away from the tissues
The subclavian vein and internal jugular vein form what?
The brachiocephalic vein
The superior vena cava is on the right/left side of the heart
The __________ nerve follows the aorta
The _________ nerve is lateral to the vagus nerve
Pathway from right ventricle to left atrium
Right ventricle -> pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary arteries -> pulmonary capillaries (blue to red) -> pulmonary veins -> left atrium (pulmonary veins should be paired on both sides)
The pulmonary artery is not paired on the right/left side?
Coronary sulcus is oxygenated or deoxygenated?
Left ventricular wall is _____________ in relation to right ventricular wall
The right and left coronary arteries come off what?
The anterior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery branches from what?
The left coronary artery
The posterior ventricular artery branches from what?
The right coronary artery
1/3 of blood comes the right or left coronary artery?
2/3 of blood comes the right or left coronary artery?
Cardiac veins that drain into the coronary sinus from right to left:
Small cardiac vein --> middle cardiac v. --> left posterior ventricular v. --> left marginal v
What drains into the right atrium? (3)
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus
The coronary sinus is on the anterior/posterior side?
Where are plaques located in vessels?
The internal thoracic artery/internal mammary artery branches from what artery?
The subclavian artery
The caval opening lies at the level of the __________ vertebra in the central tendon
The esophageal opening lies at the level of the _________ vertebra in a sling of muscle fibers derived from the right crus at the left of median plane
The aortic opening lies anterior to the body of the __________ vertebra between the crura
3 main openings of the diaphragm
The caval opening
The esophageal opening
The aortic opening
Anterior branches of the abdominal aorta (superior to inferior)
The right and left renal veins feed into what?
The inferior vena cava
The common iliac arteries become what?
External or internal iliac arteries
The femoral artery comes from what?
The external iliac artery
Is the azygos vein anterior or posterior to the superior vena cava?
Which lymphatic trunk is unpaired? Where does it drain?
The intestinal trunk
Drains into cisterna chyli
The basilic vein is medial or lateral?
The cephalic vein is medial or lateral?
The great saphenous vein is medial or lateral aspect of foot?
The small saphenous is medial or lateral aspect of foot?
The heart is in the _____________ mediastinum
The mediastinum ends at the ____________________
The _______________ is the closest layer to the heart
lines the internal surface of the body wall
The space in between the visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium
Serous pericardium layers (2)
parietal layer and visceral layer
Layers of the heart from superficial to deep
Visceral pericardium (epicardium)
Right border of the heart is formed by
the right atrium
Inferior border of the heart is formed by
the right ventricle
The left border of the heart is formed by
the left ventricle
The superior border of the heart is formed by
the right and left atrium
2 types of pericardial sinuses
Transverse pericardial sinus
Oblique pericardial sinus
Sinus that is posterior to ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
Sinus that's posterior to the heart, bounded by pulmonary veins on either side, and posterior to left atrium
The fibrous skeleton of the heart is made of
Ridged muscle located in the (anterior) atrium
Ridged muscle located in the ventricles
responsible for pulling the atrioventricular valves closed by means of the chordae tendineae (tendinous cords)
String-like tendons used to attach the atrioventricular valves of the heart to the sides of the ventricle wall. Sometimes called heart strings.
remnant of ductus arteriosus
This structure stretches from a papillary muscle on the interventricular septum to the wall of the right ventricle
3 cusps of the tricuspid valve
2 cusps of the bicuspid (mitral) valve
The SA node is in what region?
The superior portion of the right atrium
The AV node is in what region?
The inferior portion of the right atrium
pain that is felt in a location other than where the pain originates
Spinous process of C7 vertebra is seen as __________
The carotid sheath includes:
The common carotid artery
The internal jugular vein
The vagus nerve
The vagus nerve exits where?
The jugular foramen
The phrenic nerve is ____________ to the anterior scalene
The phrenic nerve is _____________ to the vagus nerve
The trachea is made of ______________. The esophagus is made of _______________.
C rings of cartilage; smooth muscle
The left vagus nerve travels more anterior/posterior?
The right vagus nerve travels more anterior/posterior?
The thoracolumbar system
sympathetic signals come from thoracic and superior lumbar nerves
The craniosacral system
another name for the parasympathetic nervous system
The vagus nerve is parasympathetic/sympathetic?
Chain ganglia are part of the
sympathetic branch of the ANS
Types of cervical fascia
The pretracheal fascia contains what?
The esophagus, trachea, thyroid, and recurrent laryngeal nerve
Situated between the sternal angle inferiorly and the superior thoracic apeture
Situated inferior to the sternal angle extending to the diaphragm
Anterior angle formed by the junction of the body and the manubrium of the sternum
_____________ is most anterior structure in mediastinum
Anterior to posterior structures in mediastinum
The partition between the two pleural cavities and lungs
The mediastinum is subdivided into:
Inferior: anterior, middle and posterior
The anterior mediastinum contains:
(Part of inferior mediastinum)
The middle mediastinum contents:
(Part of Inferior Mediastinum)
Heart/Pericaridium, Ascending Aorta, Pulmonary vessels, Lower 1/2 of SVC, Arch of Azygous, Phrenic n
The posterior mediastinum contains
(Part of inferior mediastinum)
esophagus, thoracic/descending aorta (T4 to T12), azygous system, thoracic ducts, sympathetic nerves and vagus nerve
-inferior to transverse thoracic plane
-anterior to T5-T12
-posterior to pericardium
The _________________ is just left of the body of the sternum (large vessel)
Ascending and descending aorta are roughly at what vertebrae?
The arch of the aorta is roughly at what vertebra?
The branches off the aorta are roughly at what vertebrae?
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