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Transversalis Fascia

Lines the inner surface of the abdominal muscles. Contains the Deep Inguinal Ring.

Boundaries of the Inguinal Canal

Deep: Deep Inguinal Ring
Superficial: Superficial Inguinal Ring
Anterior: Aponeurosis of the External Abdominal Oblique Muscle
Inferior (floor): Inguinal Ligament and Lacunar Ligament
Superior (Roof): Arching fibers of the Internal Abdominal Oblique and the Transversus Abdominis Muscle
Posterior: Transversalis Fascia, reinforced by the Conjoint Tendon

Direct Inguinal Hernias

Viscera exiting the abdominal cavity medial to the inferior epigastric vessels.

Indirect Inguinal Hernia

Viscera exiting the abdominal cavity through the deep inguinal ring lateral to the epigastric vessels, follows the inguinal canal

Dartos Fascia

Superfical fascia in the scrotum. Represents an extension of the Scarpa's Fascia.

Dartos Muscle

A layer of smooth muscle within the Dartos Fascia

Scrotal Ligament

A band of tissue that anchors the inferior pole of the testis to the scrotum. Remnant of the Gubernaculum Testis.

Scrotal Septum

Divides the Scrotum into right and left compartments.

Internal Spermatic Fascia

Derived from the Transversalis Fascia, the innermost layer of the spermatic cord.

Layers of the Spermatic Cord

External Spermatic Fasica, Cremasteric muscle and fascia, and the Internal Spermatic Fascia.

Spermatic Cord Contents

Ductus Deferens, Artery of Ductus Deferens, Testicular Artery, Pampiniform Plexus, Lymph Vessles, and Autonomic Nerve fibers

Vas Deferens

Ductus Deferens

Pampiniform Plexus of Veins

Numerous veins surrounding the Testicular Artery, allowing the arterial blood to be cooled before entering the scrotum.

Testicular Artery

Artery supply to the Scrotum and Testes


Surgical Interruption of the Ductus Deferens, disrupting transportation of spermatozoa but not production

Tunica Vaginalis

A serous sac surrounding the testes made from the Parietal Peritoneum. It has a visceral and parietal layer, with a potential space.

Parietal Layer of the Tunica Vaginalis

Located around the testes, created by the Parietal Peritoneum and adhered to the spermatic fascia, not located on the posterior side of the testis

Visceral Layer of the Tunica Vaginalis

Located around the testes except for the posterior end, made from parietal peritoneum and adhered directly on to the testis


Has a Head, body, and tail. On the posterior side of the testis.

Tunica Albuginea

Fibrous capsule of the testis. Divides the testis into lobules as it extends to the interior.

Lobules of the Testis

Separations of the interior of the testis via the Tunica Albuginea.

Seminiferous Tubules

Tubules located in the lobules of the Testis.

Lymphatic Drainage of Scrotum

Lymphatic Drainage to Inguinal Lymph Node. Inflammation may cause tender, enlarged superficial inguinal lymph nodes.

Lymphatic Drainage of Testis

Lymph vessels follow testicular vessels through inguinal canal and to the abdominal cavity draining into the lumbar nodes and preaortic lymph nodes. Tumors may metastasize to lumbar and preaortic lymph nodes, not to superficial lymph nodes.

Pubic Symphysis

Fusion of the right and left Pubis bones with cartilage

Median Umbilical Fold

Midline fold Inferior to the umbilicus. Contains the Urachus, obliterated allantoic duct.

Medial Umbilical Fold

Mid-Lateral fold, contains the obliterated umbilical artery.

Lateral Umbilical Fold

Lateral most fold, overlies the inferior epigastric artery and vein.

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