32 terms

Unit 3C: Nationalism and Imperialism (1850-1914)

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France's Second Republic
Republic formed after the revolution of 1848 to replace the monarchy in France. New constitution created the "Second Republic" with a one house legislature composed of 750 reps elected by universal male suffrage (term of 3 years) and a president elected the same way for 4 years. Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte elected president, soon to become Emperor.
Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon)
-He was elected President of France through universal male suffrage in Dec. 1848. He was elected because 1. He had his uncles (Bonaparte) great name. 2. Middle class and peasant property owners feared the socialistic changes that Marx stresses so they wanted a strong ruler to protect them. 3. He had a positive program for France. - He believed that the president should serve all the people and disliked parliament and political parties b/c they represented special interests.
- At the end of his 4 year term the National Assembly had failed to change the constitution so he could run a second term, so on Dec. 2 1851 he illegally dismissed the assembly and seized power in a coup d'etat. Then he called on the French people to legalize his actions and 92% voted him president for 10 years. A year later 97% voted him hereditary emperor of France.
- In the 1850's he brought great economic success to France. His gov't promoted new investment banks, railroad constructions and ambitious public work programs which included rebuilding Paris. During this time the profits of business people soared and unemployment declined.
- He also supported the working class by regulation pawn shops, supporting credit unions, improving housing and in the 1860's granting the rights to form unions and to strike.
- In the 1860's he agreed to more liberal changes in the gov't, granting more power to the assembly and accepting a new constitution.
Italian Unification (1871)
During 1848, Italy was separated into many states. Cavour worked to unify the North then helped Giuseppe Garibaldi unify the South staring with Sicily. Garibaldi eventually stepped aside and handed over all of Southern Italy to Victor Emmanuel II (King of Sardinia) rule all of the now unified Italy
Count Camillo Benso di Cavour
He was the statesman who led Sardinia during the period of Italian unification. He was the dominant figure in the Sardinian government from 1850 until his death in 1861. His national goals were limited and realistic, and until 1859, he sought unity only for the states of northern and perhaps central Italy in a greatly expanded kingdom of Sardinia. Later, he succeeded in uniting Italy, controlling Garibaldi, and turning nationalism in a conservative direction.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882).
Red Shirts (Italy)
The guerrilla army of Giuseppe Garibaldi, who invaded Sicily in 1860 in an attempt to liberate it, winning the hearts of the Sicilian peasantry.
Austro-Prussian War (1866)
Engineered by Bismarck as part of his master plan to unify Germany under the Prussian monarchy. Prussian troops surprised and overwhelmed a larger Austrian force, winning victory in only seven weeks. The result was that Austria was expelled from the old German Confederation and a new North German Confederation, completely under the control of Prussia, was created.
Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
Prussian chancellor who employed diplomacy and industrialized warfare and manipulation of democracy to unify Germany, and maintained the balance of power through a complex system of alliances aimed at isolating France
Real Politik
German term meaning practical politics, that means, policy determined by expediency rather then by ethical or ideological considerations.
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
War between Prussia and France; Prussian victory led to unification of Germany, led by Kaiser William I. Instigated by Bismarck; France, led by Napoleon III seen as the aggressor. Ended by the Treaty of Frankfurt, which ceded the territories of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany
German Unification (1871)
Causes
1. Napoleon's armies caused growing nationalism among Germans.
2. Bismarck was appointed as minister and formed several alliances and small wars.
3. After defeated France in the Franco-Prussian war, Bismark was able to get Germany unified.
Effects
1. Altered the balance of power.
2. Germany crowned its emperor at Versailles and forced France to pay reparations and cede territory, thus France hated Germany for a long time and was very harsh to them in the Treaty of Versailles.
3. Germany's economic power created a race between Germany, Great Britain, and France during the scramble for Africa.
4. Germany helped begin WWI and WWII and was dominated by fascist Hitler who conquered most of Europe.
5. Kulturkampf
6. Appeased the socialists by granting various social benefits which made socialism even more appealing.
Kulturkampf
Bismarck's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with Vatican. Eventually, after little success, Bismarck halted these policies.
Crimean War (1853-1856)
Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans. Helped weaken the efforts of the Congress of Vienna goals and policies.
Bloody Sunday 1905
A massacre of peaceful protesters at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg in 1905, triggering a revolution that overturned absolute tsarist rule and made Russia into a conservative constitutional monarchy.
Duma
The Russian parliament that opened in 1906, elected indirectly by universal male suffrage but controlled after 1907 by the tsar and the conservative classes.
Young Turks
Fervent patriots who seized power in a 1908 coup in the Ottoman Empire, forcing the conservative sultan to implement reforms.
neo-Europes
Settler colonies with established populations of Europeans, such as North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Latin America, where Europe found outlets for population growth and its most profitable investment opportunities in the nineteenth century.
Opium Wars
Wars between Britain and the Qing Empire (mind 1800s), caused by the Qing government's refusal to let Britain import Opium. China lost and Britain and most other European powers were able to develop a strong trade presence throughout China against their wishes.
Gunboat Diplomacy
The use or threat of military force to coerce a government into economic or political agreements.
Global Mass Migration
The mass movement of people from Europe in the nineteenth century; one reason that the West's impact on the world was so powerful and many-sided.
Nativism
Policies and beliefs, often influenced by nationalism, scientific racism, and mass migration, that give preferential treatment to established inhabitants over immigrants.
New Imperialism (1870-1914)
The European material and religious expansion in Africa that coincided with advances in hygiene, weapons, and medicine.
Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
A meeting at which representatives of European nations agreed upon rules for the European colonization of Africa.
Afrikaners
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910.
Apartheid
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
White Man's Burden
The idea that Europeans could and should civilize more primitive nonwhite peoples and that imperialism would eventually provide nonwhites with modern achievements and higher standards of living.
Zulu Rebellion
Indigenous rebellion, Zulus/Shaka took over the surrounding tribes and created a military force that occupied the interior of South Africa. This looked like it was going to be strong, but it was beaten by machine guns.
Orientalism
A term coined by literary scholar Edward Said to describe the way Westerners misunderstood and described colonial subjects and cultures.
Great Rebellion
The 1857 and 1858 insurrection by Muslim and Hindu mercenaries in the British army that spread throughout northern and central India before finally being crushed.
Meiji Restoration
The restoration of the Japanese emperor to power in 1867, leading to the subsequent modernization of Japan.
Hundred Days Reform (1898)
A series of Western-style reforms launched in 1898 by the Chinese government in an attempt to meet the foreign challenge.
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
In an effort to expel foreign influence from their country, a secret super patriotic group of Chinese called the Boxers (their symbol was a fist) revolted against all foreigners in their midst. In the process of laying siege to foreign legations in Beijing hundreds of missionaries and foreign diplomats were murdered. Several nations including the United States sent military forces to quell the rebellion. American participation was seen as a violation of its noninvolvement policies.
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