Contemporary Social Problems Final
Terms in this set (67)
What is climate change?
a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
What methods do scientists use to make predictions about future climate patterns(ex. temperatures)?
-A climate model is a computer generated simulation of all the major processes that drive our climate... this is heat coming from the sun, winds moving that heat around, greenhouses gases trapping that heat, oceans absorbing that heat .... They even include how water gets around in its various forms -- ice, rain and water vapor...
-And what gets plugged into the models are real observations that we've made about the climate, like those measurements from the Keelings
as well as with temperature gauges, satellite data... and even information we can squeeze out of ice cores, which is very old ice.So combining our understanding of how climate processes work... along with our real data... the model will spit out a prediction of what the future will hold say if we stop using fossil fuels today... or we keep burning up fossil fuels the way we do now. When you hear a climate change prediction about our future, chances are it came from these climate models.
What are the predicted consequences of climate change?
-severe weather events
-decline in farmlands and fish populations (drought and acidity in water issues)
-ecosystem balance threatened
-rising sea levels
How do social inequalities impact peoples view of climate change, pollution, natural disaster etc?
What is globalization?
"rapidly developing and ever-densening network of interconnections and interdependences that characterize modern life"--Tomlinson
-interdependence that characterizes modern life
What are the characteristics of globalization in wealthy countries?
-increased competition means companies must look for cheap labor in other countries
-technological advances make it easier to manage multi-national buisnesses
What are the characteristics of globalization in developing countries?
-many nations defaulted on debt to IMF and WTO--and were forced into "structural adjustment programs"
These programs make state industries private, downsize state workforce, cut subsidies on consumer goods, and devalue currency to increase attractiveness of exports
What are the outcomes of globalization for highly educated individuals?
they become highly desirable employees
What are the outcomes of globalization for rich nations?
-they benefit and have overall economic growth
What are the outcomes of globalization for developing nations?
-outsourcing threatens the manufacturing economy in many nations
-reproduces wealth inequality within and between nations
What are the outcomes of globalization for people without college degrees?
How do countries seeking to increase their export market make themselves attractive to corporations?
Why would someone move to another country?
New opportunities, family, threats, force, war, health, eduation
What are push factors of immigration?
War, threat, force, lack of opportunity, economic hardship, peresecution
What are pull factors of immigration?
family, education, medicine, new opportunities, anything that is motivating
What does the US New Immigrant survey argue?
that we have to look at WHY immigrants moved to the US and WHY they stayed
How many immigrants according to the US New Immigrant Survey didn't want to be permeant residents of the US?
It undocumented immigration increasing according to the American Community Survey?
No, it is decreasing steadily. Less new undocumented immigrants as they are being caught/detained at the border.
Majority of undocumented immigrants are coming from where?
Mexico and Latin Americas
What is the age of majority of immigrants?
Where are most immigrants living?
CA, FL, NY. New gateway states are NC and OH
How easy is it to gain legal status in the US?
Out of 11.2 million, only 5.1 million are eligible and 1 million of those are automatically okay because of DACA
What caused a shift in immigration policy in the USA?
What are 5 key changes to immigration policy?
1. Trump Administration enhancing immigration enforcement
2. Increased removal
3. Homeland Security passes 0 Tolerance policy and prosecutes anyone who crosses USA/Mexico border--family seperation
4. Decreased cap for refugees--45,000
5. Increased vetting for legal immigration
Do Immigrants commit more crime than native born americans?
No. They are arrested less than natives. Best evidence comes from incarceration rates.
What is the immigration effect?
Immigrants are not just committing less crime, but have an inverse effect on crime. More immigrants in a neighborhood=less crime
What group of immigrants is especially likely to not commit crime?
2nd and 3rd generation immigrants are more likely to do what?
What is downward assimilation?
Joining gangs and doing drugs
What are the three major determinants of which mode of assimilation is adopted?
1. Human capital-economic protection
2. Family structure-social support
3. reception context-influences outcomes
Do immigrants threaten job security?
On average, US citizens benefit from immigration. There is evidence that immigration has modest positive impact on federal government.
Who has a slight economic burden from immigration?
the states. Impact on job security on characteristics of employees.
What kinds of jobs to immigrants work?
complimentary jobs=jobs Americans don't want
What impact does immigration have on the federal government?
Modest positive impact. Immigrants contribute to taxes and they give more than they take
Immigration impact depends on what?
who are the people at most risk from immigration?
1. older immigrant communities
2. people without a high school diploma
What is the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act?
Designates criteria to give people a Visa. Shows that family is a priotities.
1. Unmarried kids of a US Citizen-20%
2.Spouses and unmarried children of lawfully admitted immigrants-20%
3.Exceptional in career/academics 10%
4.Married kids of US citizens-10%
5. Siblings of US citizens-24%
6.Skilled or unskilled labor-10%
Who are the fastest growing undocumented racial group that is rarely mentioned?
What are the 4 mechanisms that drive immigration and policy?
1. new unauthorized entrees
2. new authorized entrees
3. policy changes
What do Americans think about climate change and how do these views compare to scientists views?
Americans still have doubts and think it is caused by humans or natural causes. Science believes it is caused by human activity
What theory was originally developed by Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius? How does this theory relate to David Keeling's findings?
100-year-old-theory. The rising carbon dioxide is trapping heat from the sun and warming the world in the atmosphere could warm the planet. Keeling invented a machine to practice this theory.
What were the 6 major points of the climate change podcast?
1. Co2 levels are going up
2. surface temps of earth are rising
3. scientific consensus
4. the difference between weather and climate
5. correlation does not equal causation
6. only theory that has support is that co2 levels rising are causing higher temperatures
How do we know that the earth is going to get hotter and how do we know that the surface temperature is going up?
Climate models and computer programs
What are the challenges to addressing climate change?
Tragedy of the Commons, Treadmill of Production, Denial, competing interests
What is the tragedy of the commons?
-the tendency for a common resource to be overused
-Hardin: what happens when individuals share a limited resource
-Optimizing for the self in the short term is not optimal for the population in the long term
-advocate for regulation over self-motivated action
What is the treadmill of production?
-a term describing the operation of modern economic systems, which require constant growth, which in turn causes increased exploitation of resources and environmental degradation
-society/economy that promotes growth over all else
Why is denial a problem with climate change?
-don't believe climate change is occurring and is unrelated to human activity
-denial may not impact policy much but individual actions
-denial holds a lot of power
What are competing interests with climate change?
-obstacles to enacting solutions
-where we spend time and money
-social problems compete over limited resources
-people are not motivated to solve multiple things at once and climate change might not be on their list
What is economic globalization?
-trading goods, services, and resources
-International Corporations, IMF (international monetary fund), and WTO (world trade organization)
What is cultural globalization?
trading ideas, practices, and habits
What does globalization look like for wealthy countries?
-increased competition means companies must look for cheap labor in other countries
-technological advances make it easier to manage national businesses
What does globalization look like in developing countries?
-many nations defaulted on debt to IMF and WTO: these nations were forced into "structural adjustment programs"
*Private state industries
*Downsize state workforce
*cut subsidies on consumer goods
*devalue currency to increase attractiveness of exports
What are the WTO's protocols to decrease trade barriers?
1. agreement on agriculture
2. trade related investment measures
3. trade related intellectual property
4.General Agreement on Trade in Services
Who does outsourcing threaten?
manufacturing companies in many nations
What is a nagative outcome of globalization?
reproduces wealth inequality within and between nations
What can cultural globalization lead to?
What are Alex Schmid's 5 elements of terrorism?
2. available to everyone
3. killing or harming of non-combative civilians
4. terrorize, intimidate, or scare a group(s)
5. different goals
What does the intentional aspect of terrorism mean?
tactics and acts have to be intentional
What does the available to everyone aspect of terrorism mean?
anyone, group, or gov can terrorize
What is the killing or harming of non-combative civilians aspect of terrorism?
targeting people who have little to no authority with power systems in order to get an end goal
Terrorism is supposed to be what?
What is the different goal aspect of terrorism?
Must be working toward something that is motivating this action
if any of the 5 elements of terrorism is missing, would Schmid say it was terrorism?
What is state sponsored terrorism?
-when a government funds or enables an attack or series of attacks committed by non state actors
-state acting against another state
-enabling an attack through providing weapons
What is the likelihood of dying in a terrorist attack in the US?
Why do people fear terrorism?
so many people die at once
How has militarism been promoted as the best way to reduce the threat of terrorism?
military and defense is around 16% of the federal budget