Health Psychology Final Exam

cns: central nervous system
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Terms in this set (122)
problem-focusedstudying for an exam, developing a budget to save money, talking to a friend to solve a conflict, ect. are examples of which coping strategyemotion-focusedwriting in a journal, exercising, praying, meditating, drinking alcohol or doing drugs, ect. are examples of which coping strategyprogressive muscle relaxationexplanation that tension is a physical state resulting from tense musclescognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)therapy that aims to develop beliefs, attitudes, thoughts, and skills to make positive changes in behavior; usually the most effective technique for reducing stress among college studentsemotional disclosurewhat is the therapeutic technique in which people express their strong emotions by talking or writing about negative events that precipitated those emotions; catharsisnonspecific immune responseinflammation, phagocytosis, chemicals etc.specific immune responseT-cells, B-cells, antigens, antibodies; cell-mediated immunityautoimmune diseasea condition in which the immune system loses the ability to distinguish the body from an invader, and it mounts the same attack against itself that it would against an intruderdiathesis-stress modelsuggests that some individuals are vulnerable to stress-related diseases because either genetic weakness or biochemical imbalance predisposes them to those diseasesmen than womenfight to flight response is more valid forantibodiesdevelopment of immunity depends on the creation ofallergiesabnormal immune response to foreign substancesheadaches, hypertension, CVD, ulcers, diabetes, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, and anxiety (PTSD)stress can be linked to which diseasesspinal cordsensation of pain travels first to thefast pain responsemyelinated A-delta fibers leads to aslow pain responseunmyelinated C-fibers often result in aafferent neurons (sensory)relay information from the sense organs to toward the brain and spinal cordefferent neurons (motor)relay information from cns to the sight of the painacute painpain experienced during an injury; duration is normally brief, ordinarily adaptive, and signals the person to avoid further injurychronic painpain experienced over months or even years; not adaptive, frequently exists in the absence of any identifiable tissue damage, and often leads to feelings of helplessness and hopelessnessthalamusreceives information from afferent neurons and send information to the somatosensory cortexheadachesmost common form of pain; almost 99% of people experience it in some point in their liveshomeopathydisease can be cured by a substance that can cause the disease/symptom; like cures like2000 yearstraditional chinese medicine has been around for around how many yearsacupuncture, herbs, meditation, tai chitraditional chinese medicine views illness as an imbalance and includesoxygenated bloodarteries carrydeoxygenated bloodveins carryarteriescarry blood away from the heartveinscarry blood toward the heartcardiovascular disease (CVD)refers to the general term that includes coronary heart disease, coronary artery disease, and strokeatherosclerosisformation of plaques and the resulting occlusion of the arteries; prevents blood flowarteriosclerosisthe loss of elasticity of the arteries and cannot tolerate high blood pressure literally, "hardening" of the arteriescoronary artery disease (CAD)refers to damage to the coronary arteries, usually through atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosiscoronary heart disease (CHD)refers to any damage to the myocardium as a result of insufficient blood supplymyocardial infarction (heart attack)muscles cannot contract or relax; heart loses elasticity; blood flow slows, low oxygen supplystrokedamage to neurons in the brain from lack of oxygen to the brain; FAST: Face drooping, Arm weakness, Speech difficulty, Time to call 911systolic pressurethe blood pressure generated by the heart's contractionsdiastolic pressurethe blood pressure experienced between the heart's contractions (resting pressure)hypertensionheart attack predictor; being overweight and being African American are risk factorsadvancing age, family history, being African American, being a maleinherent risk factors for CVDhypertension, high LDL cholesterol level, problems with glucose metabolism, inflammationphysiological risk factors for CVDsmoking, weight and diet, a sedentary lifestylebehavioral risk factors for CVDlow SES, low education, low access to active lifestyle, low social supportpsychosocial risk factors for CVDcancergroup of diseases characterized by the presence of new cells that grow and spread beyond controlbenign growthsremain localized, less threatening, but not all are harmlessmalignant growthstend to spread and establish secondary locations (metastasize)carcinomacancers of the epithelial tissue (skin, stomach lining, and mucous membranes)sarcomacancers of the connective tissue (bone, muscles, and cartilage)leukemiacancer of the white blood cellslymphomacancer of the lymphatic systembreast cancerhighest cancer incidence among womenprostate cancerhighest cancer incidence among menlung cancerhighest mortality rate of all cancers, followed by colorectalliver cancer and melanomacancers with increasing incidencebeing African American, advancing age, family historyinherent risk factors for cancerexposure to radiation, pollution, asbestos, pesticidesenvironmental risk factors for cancersmoking, high fat dietbehavioral risk factors for cancerincreased HPV, increased cervical cancer, increased oral cancercertain sexual behaviors can lead to what regarding cancerskin cancer; melanoma by 75%exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly from the sun and even tanning beds, can increase the cause of what cancer and by what percentmouth, esophagus, breast (increase in estrogen), and especially liveralcohol increases the risk for which cancerscarcinogenicthe word meaning "cancer causing"truecancer damages cellular DNAnearly one halfwhat proportion of American adults live with chronic illnessphysiological functioning; physical functioning____ appears to matter more than ____ in determining the quality of life of someone who is coping with a chronic illnesstype 1 diabetesif you manage your diabetes with regular insulin injections, you havehopeless and even helplesspeople with a chronic illness usually hold what attitudes toward their conditionwomencare giving role is usually the job for whoAlzheimer's diseasesymptoms include irritability, trouble sleeping, paranoia, and usually occurs in people 75-85 years oldcognitive activity, music, and sunshine (being outdoors)protective factors against Alzheimer's diseaseobesity, sedentary lifestyle, low SES, high risk for kidney disease, pancreas disease, and heart diseasetype 2 diabetes risk factorsinsulinhelps the glucose transport from the bloodstream to the cellsasthmaan inflammatory disease in which mucous forms in the narrow airways of the bronchioles and prevents air from passing freelyexhale, rather than inhalein asthma, it is harder tomale to female rather than female to male; semen has a high concentration of HIVtransmission of AIDS is usually more likelyyoung adults, and more than half of African Americans, and also high in Hispanic women (Low SES, high male dominant cultures)AIDS is prevalent among1,300deaths from smoking every day500,000deaths from smoking each yearbronchitisinflammation of the bronchial tubes; increases mucous in the membraneemphysemascare tissue and mucus obstruct the respiratory passages, bronchi lose their elasticity and collapse, and air is trapped in the alveoliAmerican indians, people living under the poverty line, low educated peoplewho smokes1960swhen were the dangers of smoking brought to the attention of the peoplegenetics, social pressures, advertising, weight control (but that's a myth)why do people smokeoptimistic biasbelief that other people, but not oneself, will develop a disease, have an accident, or experience other negative events.more environmental exposure leads to higher risks of cancer; increased cervical cancer in women whose husbands smokesecondhand smoke risk factorswarnings are worthless; nicotine patches, gum, etc.ways to deter smoking addictioneuropean americans, people between 25-44 years of agewho drinksmore men than women, people aged between 18-24who binge drinksalcohol deydrogenasefirst enzyme during alcohol metabolism; located in the liver, breaks alcohol into aldehydealdehyde dehydrogenasesecond enzyme during alcohol metabolism; converts aldehyde into acetic acidtoleranceterm applied to the effects of a drug when, with continued use, more and more of the drug is required to produce the same effectdependenceoccurs when a drug becomes so incorporated into the functioning fo the body's cells that is becomes necessary for "normal" functioninghallucinations & convulsions (delirium tremens), irritability, agitation,withdrawal symptoms of alcoholfetal alcohol syndromecns disorders, cognitive effects, facial abnormalities, affects infants of mothers who drank heavily during pregnancycar accidents, homicide, suicideindirect hazards of drinkingcirrhosis of the liver, Korsakoff syndrome, cvd, infertility in women, fetal alcohol syndrome, cancersdirect hazards of drinkinggenetic component, cognitive theories (expectancy affect, reduces tension, alcohol myopia), and social learning theories (positive and negative reinforcement, modeling)why do people drinkAlcoholics Anonymousmost widely used alcohol rehab programmisuseall drugs have potential forsedentary lifestyle, more processed foods, fast food is cheaper, more soda intake, larger portions, less sleepwhy are we fatweight/heightbody mass indexset-point model (internal thermostat), genetics, and positive incentive model (positive reinforcement of eating)obesity theoriesrestricting types of food, behavior modification, exercise, drastic medical procedures, maintenanceapproaches to losing weighttype 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, hypertension, stroke, kidney stones, some cancers, migraines, sleep apneaobesity health riskstargeted people's emotionswhy were benneton and Marlboro commercials so successfulsugarwhat is the major cause of chronic metabolic disease and obesityyou consume more sugarwhen you take the fiber out of foodit is your fault; eat less, exercise moresubtle message regarding obesityisometric exerciseinvolves contracting muscles against an immovable objectisotonic exerciserequires the contraction of muscles and the movement of jointsisokinetic exerciseinvolves exerting effort to move muscles and joints against a variable amount of resistanceanaerobic exerciseintensive bursts of energy but no increased amount of oxygen useaerobic exerciseexercise the requires dramatically increased oxygen consumption over an extended period of time