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Respiratory Disease Unit 5 SG
Terms in this set (50)
As pulmonary edema progressively worsens, the fluid moves in what sequence?
Pulmonary edema manifests itself as a
Restrictive pulmonary disorder
The major pathologic or structural changes seen in the lungs with pulmonary edema
Hight surface tension of alveolar fluids
What are the causes of cardiogenic pulmonary edema?
Mitral valve disease
congenital heart disease
What is the normal hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries?
10 to 15 mmHg
What are the positive risk factors for coronary heart disease
Elevated homocysteine level
Which of the following is/are considered noncardiogenic causes of increased capillary permeability?
A. Therapeutic lung radiation
B. Cigarette smoke
C. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
D. Inhaled phosgene
Therapeutic lung radiation
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
Lymphatic insufficiency could be caused by
A. Lung transplantation
B. Lymphangitic carcinomatosis
C. Removal of pleural fluid
D. Decreased oncotic pressure
Management of cardiogenic pulmonary edema includes
Giving the patient a medication to lower blood pressure
Giving the patient a diuretic drug
Your patient has a decreased oncotic pressure. What can be done to increase it?
The death of lung tissue that may result from an obstruction of pulmonary artery is called a
Bronchospasm may happen after a pulmonary embolism. Which of the following can lead to this bronchospasm?
A. Localized hypoxemia
B. Localized hypercapnia
C. Localized hypocapnia
D. Release of cellular mediators from platelets
Release of cellular mediator from platelets
A pulmonary embolism causes which of the following major pathologic and structural changes in the lungs?
A. Alveolar consolidation
B. Mucosal edema
C. Alveolar atelectasis
D. Pleural friction rub
What things are associated with the formation of deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
Blood vessel injury
Predisposing factors of pulmonary emboli include
Congestive heart failure
The sudden onset of what sign and symptoms indicate a pulmonary embolism?
Coughing out blood-streaked sputum
Sudden shortness of breath
The best test for diagnosing a suspected pulmonary embolism is a
Spiral computerized tomography scan
A pulmonary angiogram is usually ordered
When other tests for a pulmonary embolism are inconclusive
Your patient's D-dimer blood test results show a value 250 ng/mL. How should these results be interpreted?
The patient does not have a pulmonary embolism
The duplex venous ultrasonography test is used to
Diagnose a blood clot behind the knee of thigh
While assessing a patient who was involved in a serious car crash and hit the steering wheel, you notice that his left anterior chest wall caves in during inspiration. What could cause this
Flail chest segment
What is a possible lung finding under the fractured ribs of a flail chest
A flail chest is defined as
Three of more adjacent fractured ribs
Double rib fractured
Major pathologic and structural changes associated with a flail chest
Causes of a flail chest include
Motor vehicle accident
Fall from a high altitude
In sever causes of flail chest, all to the following will usually be needed:
A. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
B. Pain management
C. Mechanical ventilation
D. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)
All of the above
If mechanical ventilation is required, how long will it be needed to allow sufficient time for bone healing
Your flail chest patient requires supplemental oxygen. What is the usual cause of hypoxemia in a flail chest patient?
A) Myocardial contusion
C) Pulmonary edema
D) Alveolar atelectasis
Your patient with a flail chest has developed consolidation. What should be implemented to help manage it?
Hyperinflation therapy protocol
The major anatomic alterations of the lungs associated with flail chest include?
What are the anatomic alterations that occur when a person has a pneumothorax
The lung on the affected side collapses
The visceral and parietal pleura separate
The chest wall moves outwards
A pneumothorax manifests itself clinically as a
Restrictive pulmonary disorder
Your patient with a large pneumothorax has tachycardia and a low blood pressure. What could cause this?
Decreased venous return to the heart
According to the way gas enters the pleural space, a pneumothorax will be classified as?
Your patient has had a puncture wound through her chest wall. this has resulted in a check valve so that room air is drawn into the chest during each inspiration and cannot get out. This will result in what type of pneumothorax?
A 17 year old male has been brought to the hospital because he felt short of breath after being tackled in a football game. A chest radiograph shows a broken rib and a 10% pneumothorax. The type of pneumothorax that he has is called
A 6 foot tall, 130 pound, 22 year old female patient has come to the emergency department with a complaint of a sudden sharp pain in the right upper chest followed by shortness of breath. She was participation in deep breathing exercises in her yoga class when this happened. The physician has determined that she has a 15% pneumothorax. How should this be classified?
An iatrogenic pneumothorax may be caused by
Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation
Subclavian vein cannulation
. Treatment of a 30% pneumothorax may include:
1. endotracheal intubation.
2. giving the patient supplemental oxygen.
3. placing a chest tube into the pleural space.
4. placing a chest tube into the pericardial space.
Give patient supplemental oxygen
Place a chest tube into the pleural space
Your 40 year old patient is having a chest tube placed to remove the air from her pleural space. What are necessary aspects of this process
Place the tube are the base of the lung
The anatomic alterations caused by a pleural effusion is
Separation of the visceral and parietal pleura
The major pathologic and structural changes associated with a significant pleural effusion include
Compression of the great vessels
Your patient has a large plural effusion. It will act as a
Restrictive lung disorder
Which of the following are associated with a transudative pleural effusion?
A. Thin and watery fluid
B. Fluid has a lot of cellular debris
C. Fluid has high protein count
D. Few blood cells
Thin and watery fluid
Few blood cells
The causes of a transudative pleural effusion include
Congestive heart failure
Your patient has cancer related to his chronic asbestos exposure. What is his pleural effusion fluid likely to show on a laboratory analysis?
C. Normal mesothelial cells
D. Malignant mesothelial cells
Normal mesothelial cells
Malignant mesothelial cells
Which of the following are major causes of an exudative pleural effusion
D. Peritoneal dialysis
Your patient with a large pleural effusion will have a chest tube inserted. Which of the following statements are true of this procedure?
A. Tube placement in the 2nd and 3rd intercostal space
B. Tube placement in the 4th to 5th intercostal space
C. Tube placement midclavicular line
D. Tube placement midaxillary line
Tube placement in the 4th to 5th intercostal space
Tube placement midaxillary line
Treatment of an empyema usually includes
Antibiotics for bacterial infection
Your patient has a pleural effusion form an unknown cause. A fluid sample has been taken for analysis. To help identity the cause of the effusion, what tests should be performed
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