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Cold War 1969-1980 & Trend Towards Conservatism..Nixon, Ford & Carter (Moore)
Unit 8 USHG Lane Terms & People
Terms in this set (33)
1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
An action by the House of Representatives to accuse the president, vice president, or other civil officers of the United States of committing "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
A phrase used to describe people, whatever their economic status, who uphold traditional values, especially against the counterculture of the 1960s
the Supreme Court justice durning the Nixon admistration. He was chosen by Nixon because of his strict interpretation of the Constitution. He presided over the extremly controversal case of abortion in Roe vs. Wade.
War Powers Act, 1973
Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress.
An international oil cartel originally formed in 1960. Represents the majority of all oil produced in the world. Attempts to limit production to raise prices. It's long name is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks/Treaty
series of meetings in the 70s, in which leaders of the US and the Soviet Union agreed to limit their nations' stocks of nuclear weapons
Committee To Re-Elect the President
an organization formed to run Nixon's 1972 reelection campaign, which was linked to the Watergate scandal.
(1974-1977), Solely elected by a vote from Congress. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. Evacuated nearly 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam, closing the war. We are heading toward rapid inflation. He runs again and debates Jimmy Carter. At the debate he is asked how he would handle the communists in eastern Europe and he said there were none and this apparently sealed his fate.
Amendment that creates a chain of succession for filling in the presidential seat in case of death/incapacitation.
A policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)
a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)
Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes.
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
Economic crisis of 1973 that occurred when OPEC nations refused to export oil to Western nations. Ensuing economic crisis plagued Gerald Ford's time in office.
Nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
(1977-1981), Created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
Drug Enforcement Agency
federal agency responsible for enforcing laws and regulations governing narcotics and controlled substances
A general and progressive increase in prices.
18 year olds can vote
United States vs. Nixon
The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously held that the doctrine of exceutive privilege was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions. It limited the President's executive privilege.
when Carter entered office inflation soared, due to toe the increases in energy prices by OPEC. In the summer of 1979, instability in the Middle East produced a major fuel shortage in the US, and OPEC announced a major price increase. Facing pressure to act, Carter retreated to Camp David, the presidential retreat in the Maryland Mountains. Ten days later, Carter emerged with a speech including a series of proposals for resolving the energy crisis.
Yom Kippur War
(RN), , This was a war fought by Israel and neighboring Arab nations where the Arabs launched a surprise attack during Yom Kippur. U.S. support for Israel during the war led to OPEC boycotting the U.S., creating an energy crisis.
America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892 in San Fransisco, Cali first President was John Muir group was pushed by the wealthy bc they wanted to conserve the nature (despite all the land the already own and "corrupted") for their later generations
Amnesty for Draft Dodgers
term that refers to a person who "dodges" the conscription policies of their nationby leaving the country or going into hiding
1st & 2nd Oil Crisis
Two different oil embargos
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
Olympic Boycott, 1980
The U.S. withdrew from the competition held in Moscow to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. About 64 other nations withdrew for this and other reasons.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held fifty-three American diplomats hostage for over a year. The Iranian hostage crisis weaked the Carter presidency; the hostages were finally released on January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan became president.
Panama Canal Treaty, 1977
The treaty, signed by President Jimmy Carter and Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos, contained two parts; one promised an end to U.S. control of the canal beginning in 2000; Panama was to take over operation and defense of the canal. The neutrality component of the treaty gave the U.S. permanent authority to defend the canal if it were placed under threat as a neutral water passage.
People from either Laos, Cambodia, or Vietnam who took to the seas in an effort to escape the ruthless pogroms and "re-education" labor camps done by their communist regimes. They sought refuge from other countries.
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