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Bio: CH. 41
Terms in this set (86)
what is the main process in the renal system?
in what direction does water move in terms of solute?
from low [solute] to high [solute]
regulation of osmotic pressure
how do animals obtain water? (3)
drinking, eating, cellular respiration
how do animals lose water? (4)
feces, urine, sweat, breathing
how do we get electrolytes? (1)
how do we lose electrolytes? (2)
how do freshwater fish gain water?
from where do marine fish lose water?
how do marine animals gain electrolytes?
from salt water
is salt water hyper or hypotonic to the fish?
how do freshwater fish lose electrolytes?
through diffusion across gills into hypotonic water
what concentration do marine fish want to maintain inside?
lower solute inside
keep internal fluids at same osmotic pressure as surrounding environment
how do osmoconformers do this?
reduce the amount of water and solutes moving in/out
where are osmoconformers located?
examples of osmoconformers (2)
marine invertebrates, sharks
different [solute] in/out
what do osmoregulators spend a lot of energy doing?
pumping ions to regulate water movement
examples of osmoregulators (3)
bony fish, freshwater and terrestrial animals
do marine fish have higher or lower electrolyte concentration coming in
lower concentration in
do freshwater fish have higher or lower electrolyte concentration coming in
higher concentration in
what water/electrolyte problem do marine orgs face?
water loss and electrolyte gain
how do marine orgs solve this problem?
pump Cl- ions into seawater with Na+ following
what is the urine of marine orgs like?
what water/electrolyte problem are fresh water orgs faced with?
water gain and electrolyte loss
how do they solve this problem?
minimize water intake and maximize water elimination
do freshwater orgs drink water?
what do freshwater orgs do regarding Cl-?
pump Cl- in with Na+ following
what is the urine of freshwater orgs like?
what kind of waste mainly comes from protein breakdown?
how do fish excrete NH3?
directly into water through gills
how do mammals, amphibians, sharks, and bony fish excrete NH3?
convert NH3 to urea
toxicity of urea?
less toxic than NH3
does urea require E to produce?
how do birds, reptiles, and arthropods excrete NH3?
convert it to uric acid
is uric acid water soluble?
is uric acid released with a lot of water loss?
no - released with minimal water loss
is uric acid expensive to produce?
process by which blood is filtered into an extracellular space allowing substance movement and retainment
is filtration energetically expensive?
where does filtration occur
active transport of molecules from blood through excretory tubules to extracellular space
is secretion energetically expensive?
essential molecules that were filtered out are reabsorbed (active or passive)
capillaries that are porous that blood is filtered through and moves solutes into extracellular space of Bowman's capsule
where does filtrate first go to?
through renal tubules where it is reabsorbed
what happens after reabsorption?
where does it go after secretion
collecting ducts as urine
then where to next
are the renal tubes of saltwater fish permeable to water
are the renal tubes of freshwater fish permeable to water
2 parts of kidney
outer cortex and inner medulla
where is the glomerulus?
what does the glomerulus feed into?
the renal tubule
where is the renal tubule?
starts in the cortex then goes down into the medulla, then loops back up to the cortex
what is the golmerulus
a tuft of capillaries
what is the glomerulus encased by
what does the glomerulus do
where do water, wastes, and solutes go?
Bowman's space (inside the capsule)
layer of glomerulus with finger-like projections
what do podocytes allow for? (1)
small things to pass through
what do podocytes block? (2)
proteins, big cells
where does filtrate go to?
the renal tubule
3 sections of the renal tubule
proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule
where does the filtrate first go?
proximal convoluted tubule
what occurs at the PCT?
reabsorption of electrolytes and nutrients and water
what does the Loop of henle do?
create a concentration gradient
what is the concentration gradient?
lower [solute] in the cortex, higher [solute] in the medulla
where is loop of henle impermeable to water
the thick, ascending loop
is the ascending loop impermeable to electrolytes?
no - as filtrate moves up, electrolytes actively move out
where is water permeable in the loop
the descending limb
what does the water do and what is the concentration of the filtrate then?
water moves out so the filtrate is more concentration
where is the DCT
what is the concentration of the filtrate in the DCT
what is the principle solute in the DCT
what is secreted into the DCT?
unfiltered wastes from the blood
where does filtrate go after DCT?
what happens in the collecting duct?
water levels are adjusted to maintain homeostasis
Is the collecting duct permeable to water?
yes based on hormones
when is the collecting duct impermeable?
when the person is hydrated
what else does the kidney control?
what happens when BP drops
cells secrete renin
how does BP rise
DCT takes up more salt and water
how do arteries increase BP?
constrict circular smooth muscle so diameter decreases and BP rises
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