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Ecology Final Cummulative Pt 1
Terms in this set (50)
The specific traits of a particular organism enabling it to survive, grow, and reproduce within a given environment are called
In small populations, random mating can result in the extinction or fixation of several alleles. Thus, over time the population has a lower diversity of alleles and has greater homozygosity. Which of the following best defines this result?
In several insect species, individuals that look alike usually breed with each other resulting in greater homozygosity of the alleles over time. Which of the following best defines this result.
positive assortative selection
Which of the following best describes the trade off for plant adaptation related to relative vessel diameter (wide or narrow)?
narrow for drought or cold safety wider for growth rate
If a plant has a large, wide and thin leaf with a low concentration of chlorophyll per leaf area, then this plant is adapted to _____________________.
a low light environment
Which of the following is one of the reasons why microbes can have relatively rapid evolutionary change.
their populations reproduce rapidly allowing for many mutations
Microbial metabolic diversity can be organized into a flow chart that separates the metabolic types based on important distinctions. Which of the following is (are) an important distinction used in the flow chart?
all of the above are correct
Which type of plant would be expected to increase growth rate more in an environment with 600PPM carbon dioxide compared to an environment with 350PPM carbon dioxide?
Which of the following best defines water use efficiency in plants?
the ratio of carbon gained to water lost
Which of the following best describes the functional significance of the C4 pathway to plants?
C4 is essentially a CO2 pump that increases CO2/O2 ratio near RUBISCO.
Which of the following lists includes all correct photosynthesis traits of C4 plants compared with C3 plants?
C4 - High temperature tolerance, high quantum yield at high temperature, high water use efficiency
Which of the following best defines the development of Ecological sciences in order from oldest to newest?
Phytogeography - Natural History - Experimental Ecology - Ecological Theory
If a scientist does an experiment in closed chambers and keeps all variables constant except one variable that is different among chambers. Which type of experimental design is this?
Baconian experimental design
Which of the following best describes how a hypothesis is evaluated in scientific research according to the Popperian theory of "empirical falsification"?
Hypotheses are either wrong or not wrong.
The difference between the terms "climate" and "weather" is that
Climate is the long-term pattern of weather
Maria Silbylla Merian spent a lot of time observing insects and cataloged how they developed and interacted with plants. This was a great case of which advancement in Ecological Sciences?
What is considered the primary "cost" of doing research using the "Fisherian philosophy"?
Too much interference happens by uncontrolled factors
A scientist studying the energy balance behavior of Anoles lizards took all the large surface rocks out of a habitat and measured what happened to the behavior of the lizards in the absence of rocks compared to the presence of rocks. Which type of ecological experimentation is this?
Which of the following is the atmospheric gas that absorbs much of Ultraviolet C coming from the sun?
Ozone in stratosphere
The length of the day is always 12hr at the equator but at other latitudes the day length varies. What factor is responsible for the variation in day length at higher latitudes?
Tilt of the Earth's axis
The solar constant arriving at the upper atmosphere penetrates through the atmosphere to the ground. In which way(s) does the solar radiation change as it penetrates through the atmosphere?
Both the intensity and quality of the radiation changes
Mediterranean climates are found under which of the following conditions?
Between 30 and 45 degrees latitude on west coasts of continents
What defines the location of the jetstream that travels across the northern regions of North America?
It is nested on top of the interface between the Ferrel and Polar cells
Of the following areas on Earth's surface, which area moves fastest and has the greatest linear velocity?
Surface ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere oceans typically _______________.
are colder on the western sides of continents
Based on the figure above, under which of the following conditions would the air have the lowest relative humidity?
25 oC air temperature, and 10 oC dewpoint
Why do beach climates often have less extreme temperature variation than inland climates?
The ocean moderates the temperatures of the beach climate
Which side of a mountain always receives the least orographic precipitation?
Leeward side (opposite to the prevailing wind)
In soil horizons the lower levels usually have larger average particle size. Based on this character alone, what difference would there be between the upper and lower soil horizons?
The lower horizons are sandier than the upper horizons
You notice mayfly larvae trying to emerge from a stream being slowed down when they reach the surface. What is causing them to slow their transit to the air?
The surface tension of the water
The density of water is greatest at ________.
Which of the following wavelengths of light penetrates the least into a body of water?
A scientist measures the temperature of a lake at various depths and finds very little variation between temperatures at the surface and at the bottom of the lake. The temperature measurements were most likely taken in a _____________________.
temperate lake during fall
How does an increased atmospheric CO2 concentration result in increased
CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3)
What is one major factor that determines how deep and strong the thermocline is in deep-water marine systems?
Latitude - at higher latitude the thermocline is small or nonexistent
Organisms that live in aquatic systems experience limited temperature fluctuations due to water's _____________________.
high specific heat.
Which of the following is the best definition for soil albedo?
The % of radiation that is reflected from the soil surface
Soil particles are classified on the basis of _________________.
Which of the following best describes the portion of the planet that has permafrost?
24% of the planet surface mostly in the northern hemisphere
Which of the following best defines the amount of water available for plants to
Field capacity - wilting point
Which ions of the following elements would be most available in a soil with a pH of 5.0?
Iron and Copper
Which of the following is the correct order from highest to lowest concentration in the atmosphere?
Nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide
Which of the following is true about the microbiome in the sky?
More that 300 families of bacteria have been found in the troposphere
Which of the following best characterizes the temperature as you increase in altitude through the stratosphere?
The temperature increases somewhat due to ozone.
What is the general effect of overheating of the tropical region on the polar Jetstream?
Overheating of the tropics weakens the polar jet and makes it wavy
During "El Nino" the water in the eastern Pacific warms more than normal. Which of the following is an expected result of this oceanic warming?
There is an increase in "Santa Ana" winds in California leading to a higher frequency of fires
Three Anoles lizards of the same species drifted on some wood from an old island to the beach of a new island. One of the three was a rare green form of the normally brown lizards. The population of Anoles lizards that developed on the new island had a much higher frequency of green lizards (40% green) than the original population (0.5% green) on the old island. Which of the following best characterizes this form of evolution?
If you plant one genotype of Rhododendron maximum in high vs. low light the leaves in low light are much larger that in high light. However, if you plant one genotype of Rhododendron catawbiense in high vs. low light the leaves are the same size in both light conditions. What would you say is a difference between the adaptations of these two species?
R. maximum has higher phenotypic plasticity
If the offspring of a closely related (within one family) mating pair has lower fitness than the offspring of distantly related (across two families) mating pair this would be a case of ____________________.
Over time the beak length of one group of a bird species elongated while the beak length of another group stayed short. As a result the first group of birds could eat insects from lower in the soil profile while the second group could eat food easier from higher in the soil profile. But both groups of birds still live in the same habitat. What type of selection would this represent?
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