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a scale model of the Earth


a symbolic representation of all or part of the planet


designing or making maps

map projection

a mathematical formula used to represent the curved surface of the Earth on the flat surface of a map

Planar projection

a map created by projecting an image of he Earth onto a plane

Cylindrical projection

a map of Earth created by projecting Earth's image onto a cylinder

Conic projection

a map of the Earth created by placing a cone over part of an Earth model

Interrupted Projection

a map of the Earth in which the Earth's surface appears cut along arbitrary lines, each section project separately


a specific place on the Earth

Grid System

pattern formed as the lines of latitude and longitude cross one another


half of a sphere or globe


distance north or south from the equator measured in degrees


the parallel line of 0 degrees latitude from which other latitudes are calculated


distance measured by degrees or time east or west of the prime meridian

Prime Meridian

the meridian measured 0 degrees longitude from witch other longitudes are calculated

Absolute Location

the exact position of a place on Earth's surface

Northern Hemisphere

the half of the Earth that lies north of the Equator

Southern Hemisphere

the half of the Earth that lies south of the Equator

Eastern Hemisphere

the part of the Earth east of the Atlantic ocean including Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa; 20ºW and 160ºE often considered its boundaries

Western Hemisphere

the half of the Earth compromising North and South America and surrounding waters; longitudes 20ºW ans 160ºE often considered its boundaries


lists and explains the symbols, colors, and lines used on the map; the key is also known as the legend

compass rose

indicates directions; north, south, east, west

cardinal directions

north, south, east, and west; usually indicated with arrows or the points of a star

intermediate directions

northeast, northwest, southeast, and southwest

scale bar

shows the relationship between map measurements and actual distances on Earth


a consistent, proportional relationship between the measurements shown on the map and the measurements of Earth's surface

relative location

the location of one place in relationship to another

physical map

shows the shape of the Earth's physical features


shape of the Earth's physical features


the elevations or inequalities of a land surface


the height about the sea level

political map

shows the boundaries and locations of political units such as countries, states, counties, cities, and towns


determined by humans rather than by nature


refers to the specific location of a place, including its physical setting


expression of relative location


particular space with physical and human meaning


areas with similar characteristics

formal regions

defined by human common characteristics

functional regions

a central place and the surrounding area linked to it

perceptual regions

defined by popular feelings and images rather than by objective data


a community of plants and animals that depend upon one another, and their surroundings for survival


the act or process of changing place or position

human-environment interaction

the study of the interrelationship between people and their physical environment

geographic information systems (GIS)

computer tools that process and organize data and satellite images with other types of information gathered by geographers and other scientists

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