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World Geography- Chapter 1: How Geographers Look at the World

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globe
a scale model of the Earth
map
a symbolic representation of all or part of the planet
cartography
designing or making maps
map projection
a mathematical formula used to represent the curved surface of the Earth on the flat surface of a map
Planar projection
a map created by projecting an image of he Earth onto a plane
Cylindrical projection
a map of Earth created by projecting Earth's image onto a cylinder
Conic projection
a map of the Earth created by placing a cone over part of an Earth model
Interrupted Projection
a map of the Earth in which the Earth's surface appears cut along arbitrary lines, each section project separately
location
a specific place on the Earth
Grid System
pattern formed as the lines of latitude and longitude cross one another
Hemisphere
half of a sphere or globe
latitude
distance north or south from the equator measured in degrees
Equator
the parallel line of 0 degrees latitude from which other latitudes are calculated
longitude
distance measured by degrees or time east or west of the prime meridian
Prime Meridian
the meridian measured 0 degrees longitude from witch other longitudes are calculated
Absolute Location
the exact position of a place on Earth's surface
Northern Hemisphere
the half of the Earth that lies north of the Equator
Southern Hemisphere
the half of the Earth that lies south of the Equator
Eastern Hemisphere
the part of the Earth east of the Atlantic ocean including Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa; 20ºW and 160ºE often considered its boundaries
Western Hemisphere
the half of the Earth compromising North and South America and surrounding waters; longitudes 20ºW ans 160ºE often considered its boundaries
key
lists and explains the symbols, colors, and lines used on the map; the key is also known as the legend
compass rose
indicates directions; north, south, east, west
cardinal directions
north, south, east, and west; usually indicated with arrows or the points of a star
intermediate directions
northeast, northwest, southeast, and southwest
scale bar
shows the relationship between map measurements and actual distances on Earth
scale
a consistent, proportional relationship between the measurements shown on the map and the measurements of Earth's surface
relative location
the location of one place in relationship to another
physical map
shows the shape of the Earth's physical features
topography
shape of the Earth's physical features
relief
the elevations or inequalities of a land surface
elevation
the height about the sea level
political map
shows the boundaries and locations of political units such as countries, states, counties, cities, and towns
human-made
determined by humans rather than by nature
site
refers to the specific location of a place, including its physical setting
situation
expression of relative location
place
particular space with physical and human meaning
region
areas with similar characteristics
formal regions
defined by human common characteristics
functional regions
a central place and the surrounding area linked to it
perceptual regions
defined by popular feelings and images rather than by objective data
ecosystem
a community of plants and animals that depend upon one another, and their surroundings for survival
movement
the act or process of changing place or position
human-environment interaction
the study of the interrelationship between people and their physical environment
geographic information systems (GIS)
computer tools that process and organize data and satellite images with other types of information gathered by geographers and other scientists