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braod and extensively tested explanation of why experiments give certain results. can't be proven
concise statement that summerizes the results of many observations and experiments. can be proven, but can't be explained
how to study chemistry
understand and apply concepts by using your textbook, experiments tests and quizzes
boiling liquid to produce a vapor that is then condensed again into a liquid. it purifies the liquid
either hetero. or homo.
a physical blend of two or more substances that is seperable by hand
relationship b/w numerator and denominator in a conversion factor
numerator is equivalent to denominator
Dalton's Atomic Theory
•atoms of same element are identicle
•atoms of different elements can physically mix together in simple whole-number ratios
•atoms of 1 element are never changed into atoms of another element as a result of a chemical reaction
•the number over the chemical symbol of the periodic table
•tells how many protons are in the element
•the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus
•under the chemical symbol
different number of neutrons=different number of mass
(ex. Ne-20: 10p, 10n, 10e; Ne-21: 10p, 11n, 10e; Ne-22: 10p, 12n, 10e)
any atom or group of atoms that has a positive charge, meaning one or more electron has been taken away
⁺sign is directly after the chemical symbol
any atom or group of atoms that has a negative charge, meaning one or more electrom has been added
⁻sign is directly after the chemical symbol
when a group of the periodic table becomes ions
ionic charge is positive and numerically equal to the group when positive/when negative subtract the group number from 8 to get the number** see pages 143-145
chemical reaction symbols
+ add reactants
--> yield; products come after this symbol
(s) (l) (g) (aq) states
arrow with triangle on top heat was used
arrow with "Pt" on top catalyst used
types of chemical reactions
double displacement (acid-base or precipitate)
chemical equations must be balanced so that they:_______ (reason)
obey the the law of conservation of mass
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