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Introduction to Research Methods - Chapters 1 & 2
Terms in this set (58)
Three Reasons to Study Educational Research
1. Become "research literate."
2. Improve critical thinking.
3. Design and conduct research.
A variable that may compete with the independent variable in explaining the outcome.
Three Sources of Knowledge
The idea that knowledge comes from experience.
A statement that is based on observation, experiment, or experience.
The process of drawing a conclusion that is necessarily true if the premises are true.
The process of drawing a conclusion that is "probably" true
Stating what is likely to occur, not what will necessarily occur
Problem of Induction
Things that happened in the past might not happen in the future.
Research that undergoes the scrutiny of one's peers.
Includes any systematic or carefully done actions that are carried out to answer research questions or meet other needs of a developing research domain.
True or False: The Scientific Method is a cycle.
A researcher who focuses on testing theories and hypotheses using quantitative data to see if they are confirmed or not.
A researcher who focuses on exploration and the generation and construction of theories using qualitative data.
A top-down or confirmatory approach to research. (Starts with theory.)
A bottom-up or generative approach to research. (Starts with observation.)
True or False: Deductive Methods/Reasoning is synonymous with Quantitative Methods.
True or False: Inductive Methods/Reasoning is synonymous with Qualitative Methods.
Nature of Science
Science is often refutable and should be; it needs to be testable.
Criterion of Falsifiability
The property that statements and theories should be testable and refutable.
Rule of Parsimony
Preferring the most simple theory that works.
Research examining the same variables with different people and in different ways.
Is what you are measuring being measured?
The degree to which an experiments's results can be attributed to the treatment in question, not to other factors.
The degree to which results of an experiment can be applied to real-life situations.
Does your measurements yield consistent results?
True or False: Something can be valid, but not reliable.
False (If it's valid, it's assumed to be reliable.)
True or False: Something can be reliable, but not valid.
True (It can be consistently wrong.)
Main Objective of Educational Research
Improvement of the world or social betterment.
Four Types of Research Objectives
Any mixture of different methodologies.
Characteristics of Quantitative Research
Confirmatory; hypothesis testing; generalizability
Characteristics of Qualitative Research
Exploratory; hypothesis and theory generating
Characteristics of Mixed Research
Mixing of quantitative and qualitative methods of paradigm characteristics.
True or False: Quantitative researchers attempt to operate under the assumption of objectivity.
True or False: Qualitative researchers want to "get close" and be subjective.
A condition of characteristic that can take on different values or categories.
Variable that varies in degree or amount.
Variable that varies by type or kind.
Independent Variable (IV)
A variable that is presumed to cause a change in another variable.
Dependent Variable (DV)
A variable that is presumed to be influenced by or more independent variables.
Three Key Characteristics of Experimental Research
1. Manipulation of the IV
2. Control Group
3. Random Assignment
The most effective way to make the groups similar to control for extraneous variables.
A numerical index that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables.
The situation when scores on two variables tend to move in the same direction.
The situation when scores on two variables tend to move in opposite directions.
What is the range of correlational coefficients?
-1 to 1
True or False: The higher the number, ignoring the sign if it is negative, the stronger the relationship.
True or False: Correlation does imply causation.
False (Correlation does NOT imply causation.)
Three Problems with Correlation Research
1. No manipulation IV
2. Difficult to determine temporal order of variables (What came first?)
3. Too many extraneous variables that are unexplained
Three Conditions Necessary for Causation
1. Variables must be related
2. Proper time order must be established
3. The relationship between the variables must not be due to confounding variables
A form of qualitative research in which the researcher attempts to understand how one or more individuals experience a phenomenon.
A form of qualitative research focused on describing the culture of a group of people.
True or False: The defining characteristics of culture is not language.
False (The defining characteristic of culture is language.)
Grounded Theory Research
A qualitative approach to generating and developing a theory from the data that the researcher collects.
A form of qualitative research that is focused on providing detailed account of one or more cases.
Research about people, places, and events in the past.
Cross-checking information and conclusions through the use of multiple procedures or sources. When the different procedures or sources are in agreement you have corroboration.
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