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Final Exam Review (All Sheep Quizzes)
Terms in this set (75)
Why should you dip a newborn lamb's naval in 7% iodine?
to prevent infection/bacteria from entering
We went over the list of equipment that is necessary and/or useful. Why is stored colostrum considered necessary yet OB sleeves are useful but not necessary?
some mothers may not produce adequate colostrum, so the stored colostrum can be used for the lamb to get the required nutrients/antibodies. You can sleeve a sheep without an OB sleeve.
You have gone out to the barn to find a ewe has lambed. She has had twins and both are severely chilled and suffering from EXTREME hypothermia. What are the three steps to revive these lambs?
-heat lamp/hot box/get into a warm room
-glucose injection IP ASAP
Septicemia is sometimes seen in early neonatal lambs (first 4 weeks of age). What would be two reasons for seeing this problem in those lambs?
-lack of adequate colostrum
-not eating enough
-mom's poor ability to make milk
What would be the likely scenario to see a ewe with a prolapsed uterus? Describe the likely remedy this situation.
not enough space in the uterus, delivers lamb but strains too hard, or the muscles are too weak to hold uterus in. In order to fix this, slowly push the uterus back in and either use a harness or a stitch that still allows her to defecate and urinate to hold the uterus in place.
Enterotoxemia is caused by what organism? How is this disease best prevented?
it is caused by a bacteria
clostridium type d vaccine
Between campylobacter, chlamydia, and toxoplasmosis, which does not respond to antibiotic treatment?
toxoplasmosis: not caused by a bacteria but by a protozoa
When would you most likely see a ewe with severe ketosis? How would you treat a ewe that has severe ketosis? What would be one way to prevent ketosis in a ewe?
-late gestation, twins or more
-treat with propylene glycol
-feed grain to avoid
Polioencephalomalacia is actually a deficiency in what nutrient? What is the most likely explaination for seeing it in young lambs (4-8 weeks) eating creep feeds?
thiamine deficiency. the young lambs usually overeat/eat too much causing them to have too much thiamine in their system
What would be a common organism that can cause mastitis in an early lactation ewe? What would be an effective treatment for this mastitis?
The biggest concern a producer has when his flock has been infected with the campylobacter organism is?
You have a 2 day old lamb that you are banding to both dock and castrate. The mother of the lamb was not vaccinated for tetanus so passive protection would be minimal at best. What causes the symptoms seen in animals sickened from tetanus? How can this lamb be given immunological protection at the time of banding?
-toxins produced by the clostridium tetani cause the symptoms
-give antitoxin or toxoid for tetanus
We vaccinate lambs for the clostridium perfringens type D illness. What is the common name of this disease?
What is a common fungal disease seen in sheep?
What is the most common treatment method for lambs diagnosed with joint ill?
antibiotics, normally not long acting penicillin
The disease seen in baby lambs that is sometimes known as "rattle belly" is caused by what common organism?
(rattle belly is e. coli scours)
Fusobacterium necrophorum and dichelobacter nodosus are organisms associated with what common disease?
A lamb has severe dark diarrhea. What is likely the cause?
What is meant by the term zoonotic disease?
can be passed from animals to humans
The FAMACHA system is used to do what?
it uses eye anemia chart to determine if there are parasites present in the sheep, mainly for stomach worms
What is the clinical name for an inverted eyelid? What is one treatment option for a lamb with this ailment?
-staple, stitch, inject 1mL of antibiotic, rubberband
What is the common name for contagious ecthyma in sheep?
What is the difference between an antitoxin and a vaccine containing a toxoid?
antitoxin: antibodies against the toxin already made
toxoid: causes the body to make the antibodies
Caseoous lymphadenitis affects what tissue in the sheep? What is the most effective treatment for this disease?
-sanitation and vaccination
if draining abscess, do so away from other sheep: spreads easily
What is the most effective method used for the prevention of coccidiosis in young sheep?
feed an ionophore daily
ex. bovatec rumensin
Most internal parasites are picked up by the sheep during what activity?
when the sheep are grazing/feeding
Of the internal parasites that were discussed in class, which causes the most damage to the GI tract of the host?
stomach worms/ mainly barber pole worms
What is the popular hair type sheep breed that was developed in the US?
Inbreeding in a seed stock sheep flock is used for one primary reason. What is that reason?
to gain/breed for a desirable trait
What would be a possible negative aspect of too much inbreeding in a sheep population?
unintentionally breeding for undesirable trait
The polled dorset breed was developed at North Carolina State University by initially breeding two horned dorsets to each other. How is this possible?
polled is a recessive gene, if they bred two heterozygous horned, they would have a 25% chance of gaining a polled which they could then use to breed further
Why would sheep producers utilize outcrossing as part of their sheep breeding program?
to increase hybrid vigor within a breed
What would be an example of a qualitative trait? Why is it easier to see selection progress when it involves selecting for this type of traits?
-horns, spider lamb
-it involves one gene to be expressed: you either have it or you don't
Hairy lamb syndrome is a lethal genetic disease found in the southdown breed. If a sheep has been determined to be a carrier of this gene, the two alleles would look like what?
What breed is the most popular meat type breed?
What 3 breeds could you use if you were charged with developing a group of commercial ewes that are prolific, can breed out of season, are good mothers and milkers, are durable and hardy, with acceptable wool quality and carcass characteristics?
columbia, polled dorset, rambouillet
(i also put polypay)
What is meant by the term epistasis when describing gene expression?
a type of gene interaction in which one gene alters the phenotypic effects of another gene that is independently inherited.
If the sire is homozygous dominant and the dam is heterozygous recessive for the spider lamb genes, what statistical chance (percentage) would you have for offspring to be carriers of the disease gene?
50% chance for a carrier
Both the horned dorset and the horned rambouillet breeds have horns. Briefly explain why only the rams in the rambouillet exhibit horns.
horns in a rambouillet is sex linked, whereas is is autosomal dominant for the dorsets
If you were looking to import some east friesian ewes, you would most likely want them for their ability to do what?
Crossbreeding is often used in commercial sheep breeding programs for what purpose?
increase hybrid vigor
The katahdin breed is hardy, adaptable, and is acceptable in its muscling but it is particularly unique in one other strength. What is that strength?
What would be one example of a composite breed developed in the US?
Purebred breeds have unique breed characteristics that distinguish them from each other. What is the main breed character difference between the suffolk and the hampshire breeds?
suffolk sheep have no wool on their head and legs whereas hampshires have wool on their head and legs
What reproductive or production stage in a normal management year for breeding ewes has the highest nutrient requirements?
(early) lactation stage
What would be the ideal range in body condition score for ewes at lambing?
Tetracyclines can be fed to growing lambs if the producer has a prescription from a veterinarian. Why has feed grade tetracyclines become restricted by the FDA?
it is an antibiotic, there can be a resistance formed if it is fed too much/too often
You have a group of ewes that are pregnant and the only forage on the farm is balage (baled and wrapped hay silage). As part of the thought process to determine if balage should be fed to the ewes, any possible health concern should be considered. What health concern could be a reason for not feeding ensiled forages to the gestating ewes?
they could get listeriosis from the improper/infected silage
Sheep have evolved to be able to utilize structural carbohydrates as a feed energy source. Microbial fermentation of these carbohydrates produce volatile fatty acids. What are the two most prevalent VFAs in the rumen?
propionate and acetate
(butyrate is the other one, just not as prevalent)
Transitioning lambs that have only been on pasture to a high grain diet is critical. Aside from allowing the lambs to get used to the new feed, what purpose does the transition serve? What is the likely outcome if the lambs have not been properly transitioned?
-you need 14d minimum to transition the microbial population within the rumen
-if you don't do this, you will have acidosis in the rumen
We occasionally will see lambs that have urinary calculi. What is the primary cause of urinary calculi?
a less than 1:1 ratio of calcium and phosphorus
As a forage management tool, stockpiling of grass forage is an option. What is stockpiling of forage and how is it accomplished?
stockpiling is accomplished by taking the sheep off of a certain pasture for an extended period of time to allow the forage to grow. this will hopefully allow you to use the forage for longer into its off season
Give a specific example of a feed for sheep considered high in ADF and NDF.
-turnips or any brassicas
What mineral when fed at toxic levels will cause liver dysfunction and death in sheep?
Selenium is the only mineral controlled by the FDA. What is the legal level of selenium in a concentrate feed? If selenium is deficient, what other nutrient can be fed to overcome some of the deficiency issues?
-you can use vitamin E
(selenium has peroxidase, which acts as an antioxidant, vitamin e has antioxidant properties)
Water intake is critical for a sheep's survival. What would be one factor that can actually cause a lamb to require higher water intake?
-larger intake of dry matter
-if it is too hot in the barn
-higher salt, mineral, nitrogen, protein intake
If you want to extend the grazing season for your sheep operation, incorporating annual cool season forage plants into your system is an option. Give an example of one of these plants discussed in class and then explain what it brings to a grazing system that other cool season forages do not.
wheat, rye, turnips, rapeseed
extends the grazing beyond the normal grazing period
Ewes carrying twins in late gestation can often develop mild to severe ketosis. How can a producer prevent ketosis in a prepartum ewe?
(high quality hay and bovatec can help but they are not enough)
What is a significant reason for converting from a continuous grazing system to a rotational grazing system?
it can lead to better quality forage with more nutrients. with continuous grazing, sheep will eat all the way down, causing the plant to grow based on energy from the roots, whereas rotational grazing leaves some green for photosynthetic energy growth.
When designing a confinement sheep facility that will house ewes and baby lambs during the lambing season, what is the most important design feature to impact the incidence of pneumonia in the lambs?
A combination feeder is a feeder designed to do what?
feed hay and grain at the same time
You are building an electric fence to keep your sheep in a field and predators or dogs out. Explain how a fence would be constructed so that the sheep would receive a shock when touching two of the fence wires at the same time. How would this same design also work to deter predators from climbing over the fence?
sheep are touching wires and the ground, which give the sheep a shock from the ground wires to the wires it is touching. the predators would be grounded too
There are a variety of fencing materials that can be used with sheep operations. What would be the two permanent fencing options most often used in the sheep operations in the US?
high tensile electrified wire, woven wire fencing
One design feature for the round sheep feeder is to have a cone insert added. What is the purpose of this insert?
to funnel the feed
What is the primary function of a boundary or peripheral fence?
keep animals in and predators out
If you wanted to cross-fence a pasture paddock to better control the grazing by sheep, what would be the most popular temporary fencing wire to use?
Some, but not all sheep operations have "working facilities" on their premises. What would be the reason for an operation of a facility to go to the expense of building or installing a working facility?
to make vaccinating, handling, and daily care of each sheep more effective
Explain the unique design of polywire that allows it to be used as part of an electric fence system. Visibility of these fencing materials by animals can be a problem. How have manufactures helped to eliminate this issue?
-polywire can hold an electric charge, so it can be energized
-manufactures have made polywire in colors so it stands out
What is the name of the piece of equipment that provides the safe electrical current for an electric fence?
What is a turntable's function on a sheep operation?
it turns the sheep safely to their side
Sheep mineral feeders are usually constructed from a plastic material. Why plastic and not metal?
minerals can deteriorate the metal
When feeding large round bales to sheep, we most often use some type of round bale feeder. Why are large round bale feeders considered a valuable piece of equipment?
keeps the sheep from wasting the hay by keeping it contained
We discussed several types of grain feeders. Describe a self-feeder for grain. Why would a producer consider using a feeder of this type?
-a self-feeder for grain holds grain at a certain level and when it becomes low, it refills itself
-it allows sheep constant access to feed
The design of most creep gates have a common feature. When purchasing or making your own creep gate, you should always keep in mind the purpose of the gate. What is that purpose?
to keep adult sheep out, only allowing lambs in
What is one piece of a watering system that would only be considered for the winter months?
a water heater
This set is often in folders with...
sheep production quiz 1
sheep quiz three
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