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Ch 11 Pharm
Terms in this set (42)
What is true about the vast majority of psychoses?
They have no identifiable cause
What blocks dopamine D2 receptors?
What is true regarding atypical antipsychotic drugs?
They treat both positive and negative signs of schizophrenia and have become drugs of choice for treating psychoses.
What is the most common type of psychosis?
Psychoses may be classified as?
Chronic or acute
What is the difference between chronic and acute psychoses?
Chronic develop over months to years, acute develop over hours to days
The majority of psychoses have no known cause (etiology). What are the six identifiable causes?
Brain damage, medication overdose, depression, alcoholism, genetics, drug addiction
What do positive symptoms include?
Hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thoughts, disorganized speech patterns
What do negative symptoms include a lack of?
Interest, motivation, responsiveness, pleasure
What is important for the selection of appropriate antipsychotic drugs?
Proper diagnosis of positive and negative symptoms
What are the symptoms of schizophrenia thought to be associated with?
The dopamine D2 receptors in the basal nuclei
What will reduce symptoms of schizophrenia?
Medications that block 65% of D2 receptors. .... blocking more than 80% will likely cause extrapyramidal symptoms
What is paranoia?
an extreme suspicion that one is being followed or that others are trying to harm one
what are delusions?
firm ideas and beliefs not founded in reality
what are hallucinations?
false perceptions having no relation to reality
what are positive symptoms?
symptoms that are added to normal behavior
what are negative symptoms?
symptoms that subtract from a normal behavior
What is schizoaffective disorder?
a condition in which the patient exhibits symptoms of both schizophrenia and mood disorders
What is a neuroleptic?
What are anticholinergics?
A class of drug that might be used to decrease extrapyramidal effects
what are extrapyramidal effects?
a movement disorder brought on by medication effects
what class of drugs tends to produce severe side effects, such as muscle twitching, compulsive motor activity, and a Parkinson like syndrome?
delusions, hallucinations, disordered communication, and difficulty relating to others are symptoms closely associated with what?
extrapyramidal side effects consist of what?
distorted body movements and muscle spasms
How long does it take chlorpromazine (Hydrazine) before it's therapeutic effect is achieved, like many antipsychotics?
2 -3 weeks
What can many of the major effects of chlorpromazine (Thorazine) be attributed to?
interfering with the binding of dopamine to receptors located throughout the brain
why are atypical antipsychotics sometimes preferred over phenothiazines?
they can treat both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis
Nonphenothiazine agents differ from phenothiazines agents in what way?
Nonphenothiazines cause less sedation and fewer anticholinergics side effects than phenothiazines
Patients on clozapine (Clozaril) must watch carefully for signs of agranulocytosis, which include?
fever & sore throat
What possible indication would the nurse assess a patient for who is on a phenothiazine and complaining of having elevated temperature, sweating, and "not feeling well"?
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
What drug is a good choice for a patient that has problems with daily compliance?
Haloperidol (Haldol LA) ...lasts for 3 weeks
A patient develops EPS after taking phenothiazines. What medication counteracts EPS?
What conditions can the nurse expect to see when a patient takes phenothiazines for an extended time?
What can lead to noncompliance of antipsychotic drugs?
the severe adverse effects
What would patient education for the patient started on phenothiazines for schizophrenia include?
severe muscle spasms may occur early in therapy
What symptoms can be recognized as an anticholinergic effect of chlorpromazine (Thorazine)?
dry mouth, postural hypotension, urinary retention
The patient is on thioridazine (Mellaril) and has developed muscle spasms, difficulty sleeping, & a shuffling gait. The nurse recognizes this as?
extrapyramidal adverse effects
What does the name antipsychotic explain as far as continuing the medication as prescribed being important?
symptoms of psychosis are likely to return if not continued
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is most likely to occur with use of what drug?
For what conditions would Haloperidol (Haldol) be indicated?
Which drug group can lead to type 2 diabetes?
Which drug can cause bone marrow suppression?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch 9 Pharm
Ch 10 Pharm
Ch 12 Pharm
Ch 8 Pharm
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