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Math
Statistics
Research Design and Statistical Analysis CHAPTER SIX - FINAL EXAM
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Terms in this set (38)
P < .05
The criterion level that researchers typically use is _
Not due to chance alone and do not belong to the sampling distribution defined by the null hypothesis
When we find statistical significance it suggests that our results were _
Null hypothesis
The _ sets up the sampling distribution to which we compare a study's results
18%: moderate
Steve finds that the proportion of variability accounted for in his experiment is .18. This means that _ of the variability in the dependent variable is accounted for by the independent variable and he has found a _ effect
The larger the sample size better represents the population and better represents any differences that exist in the population
Increasing the sample size in a study from 30 to 50 increases the power of a study because _
Confidence interval
Joyce asks individuals leaving a gym how many times a week they tend to exercise at the gym. She finds a mean of 3.67 (SD = 1.89), but her friend is not satisfied because she feels that Joyce needs to calculate the _to understand the margin of error in the results
Distraction levels will differ for the two types of cell phone rings
In an experiment examining the effect of type of cell phone ring (popular song vs. piano playing) on distraction, the alternative hypothesis would predict _
What the researcher expects to find
Alternative hypotheses alway predict _
Parameters
Statistics from a population are called _
Null hypothesis
The type of pose in one's Facebook picture makes no difference in ratings of narcissism by those viewing the page. This is an example of a(n) _
Within-groups or error; decrease
Individual differences within the sample such as age, gender, and education level can create uncontrolled differences in the measure of our study. This difference is called _ variance, and it can _ the power of our study
More stringent criterion level and a two-tailed test
Two ways a researcher can reduce the probability of a Type I error are to use a _
Increasing the sensitivity of her measure
The researcher can decrease the error in her research design through _
The usefulness of our results in everyday life
Practical significance refers to _
Extreme 5% of the distribution for a one-tailed hypothesis and extreme 2.5% of the distribution for a two-tailed hypothesis
The critical value of a statistic defines the _
Extreme 5%
The region of rejection is generally the _ of the sampling distribution
One-tailed hypothesis
Using a provocative pose in one's Facebook picture will result in higher ratings of narcissism by viewers than using a picture that shows a person standing with friends. This is an example of a _
3.67; 1.44; 5.90
Joyce asks individuals leaving a gym how many times a week they tend to exercise at the gym. She finds that on average, her participants exercise 3.67 times a week (SD = 2.00), 95% CI [1.44, 5.90]. This suggests that her mean of _ likely represents a population mean between _ and _
1%; zero
If you reject your null hypothesis (p < .01), the probability that you have made a Type I error is _ and the probability that you have made a Type II error is _
18 standard deviation units;, weak
Edna compares two groups and finds a Cohen's d of .18, suggesting that the means of the groups differ by _, which is a _ effect
Decrease; homogeneity
In her study of adjustment to college, Sasha decided to use only first year, first generation college students who lived on campus. This decision is likely to _ the error variance in her results because of the _ of her sample
70-90
In a normal distribution with M = 80, SD = 10, the range of scores that defines 68% of the distribution is _
Our sample does not belong to the sampling distribution as defined by the null hypothesis and we should reject the null hypothesis
When the results for a study fall in the region of rejection it implies that _
A Type II error
Suppose the type of computer game (violent vs. scavenger hunt) really has an impact on players' aggression but you do not reject the null hypothesis. You have made _
Suppose the type of computer game (violent vs. scavenger hunt) really has an impact on players' aggression but you do not reject the null hypothesis. You have made _
A researcher finds a p value of .0. Using the standard criterion for statistical significance, are the results statistically significant? And as such should the researcher reject or retain the null hypothesis?
Reject a true null hypothesis
A Type I error occurs when you _
The impact of aspirin had practical significance
Researchers examining the impact of aspirin on preventing heart attacks found a very weak effect size but concluded that aspirin was indeed helping to prevent heart attacks and prevent individuals from dying from a heart attack. How is this possible?
Drawing many samples of the same size from a population and computing the same statistic for each sample
A sampling distribution is created by _
The outcome of a study is typical or unusual for a particular sampling distribution
The purpose of inferential statistics is to allow researchers to determine whether _
A difference between groups
In an experiment the alternative hypothesis predicts _
Retain the null hypothesis
When the results for a study fall in the region of acceptance we should _
Percentage of the sampling distribution that the researcher selects for the region of rejection
The criterion level defines the _
State hypotheses, define the sampling distribution, collect data, compare results to sampling distribution, decide whether to reject or retain the null hypothesis
The order of the hypothesis testing process is described by which of the following?
Increasing the sensitivity of her measure
A researcher can decrease the error in her research design through _
The mean TED talks watched for each group
A researcher found that students who took a research methods course watched more TED talks than those who had not taken a research methods course. In order to evaluate the practical significance of these results, at minimum you would need _
Correctly rejecting a false null hypothesis
Power is defined as _
Mean and standard deviation in a sample
The mu and sigma in a population correspond to the _
Not statistically significant, retain the null
A researcher finds a p value of .17. Using the standard criterion for statistical significance, are the results statistically significant? And as such should the researcher reject or retain the null hypothesis?
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