Research Final

What are the 4 Foundations of Human Behaviors (i.e. the Major Tenets of Philosophical Underpinnings)?
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Terms in this set (43)
1) Positivism - Truth exists and can be known. There is a real reality. Dichotomus conclusions are possible.
2) Postpositivism - Truth can never be fully known. There is a real reality. Dichotomus conclusions are not possible because systems are complex.
3) Constructivism - There are no absolute truths. There is no real reality or absolute truth. Perceptions are reality. Ideas about the world are constructed in the minds of individuals.
4) Critical Theory - Social constructions are shaped by social, political, historical, and economic forces. Social constructions results from power structures that have become embedded within a societal context over time.
1) Sex - Anatomical or biological characteristics
2) Gender - Culturally ascribed characteristics associated with maleness or femaleness (cultural phenomenon)
3) Ethnicity - Characterized by sharing cultural characteristics, national origins, religious affiliations, or other types of socially or geographically defined group
4) Culture - The values, beliefs, language, rituals, traditions, and other behaviors that are passed down from one generation to another within any social group (Subjective Culture)
5) Race - Biological components where people are divided into groups based on similar physical features and behavioral tendencies. Pay close attention to the following:
- Mongoloid - Ancestors were born in East Asia
- Caucasoid - Ancestors were born in Europe
- Negroid - Ancestors were born in Sub-Saharan Africa
1) Fidelity/Veracity - Faithfulness, truthfulness, keeping promises, loyalty
2) Autonomy - Liberty to choose one's course of action and freedom of choice 🇺🇸
3) Justice - Fairness, rightness, and equity
4) Nonmaleficence - Subjects must not be harmed by participating in the research
5) Beneficence - Doing good for others
1) Researcher Bias - Preconceived ideas or thoughts about a particular group that may hinder the validity of research findings
2) Participant - Someone in your study (already agreed to participate)
3) Confidentiality - Participants identification is known but is protected and not shared with anyone
4) Anonymity - It is anonymous, no one knows identification of the person, names are not written down, no record of that person is kept or recorded
What are the 4 types of Validity? What is each one's definition? What is at least one threat to each and an effective way of controlling for that threat?1) Internal Validity - Degree of certainty with which one can conclude causal relationships 2) External Validity - Degree to which the relationship can be generalized across units, treatments, outcomes, and settings 3) Construct Validity - Degree to which a chosen variable captures the hypothetical construct (i.e. the degree to which the measured variables used in the study represent the hypothesized constructs) - Degree to which what you're talking about matches what you're talking about: Researcher + Audience = Same Page (High construct validity means it matches on every level) 4) Statistical Conclusion Validity - Degree to which the researcher has come to the correct conclusion through statistical analyses (about this relationship)What are the different types of Research Designs covered in this course? What is the definition for each?1) Qualitative Research - Relies upon a naturalistic and interpretive approach in order to understand the research question of interest. Research is exploratory in nature and relies upon the relationship between the researcher and the subject of exploration to illuminate meaning. (Open-ended questions - focuses on depth) 2) Quantitative Methodologies - 🎨paint a broad picture of the relationship among the constructs assessed through generating and averaging nomothetic data over a relatively large number #️⃣ of participants (Focuses on breadth) 3) Mixed Methods Designs - Utilizes elements from bothWhat is the Independent Variable?Anything you are manipulating or controlling (the variable being manipulated or controlled) - treatment is an exampleWhat is the Dependent Variable?The comitant changes you are observing (what is being changed by the independent variable)What is Randomization or Experimental Control?There is no predetermined factor. The more experimental control you have, the greater the ability to make inferences about causation Control = no treatment Experimental = treatmentWhat is Generalizability?The degree to which the results of the study can be applied to real world settings (external validity)What is the Null Hypothesis and the Alternative Hypothesis?1) Null Hypothesis - Predicts that there is no relationship between the variables in the study 2) Alternative Hypothesis - States that there is some true relationship between the variablesWhat is a Type I Error? (RA)Incorrectly concluding that a true relationship exists (rejecting the null hypothesis when in fact it should be accepted)What is a Type II Error? (AR)Incorrectly concluding that there is no relationship when one does exist (failing to reject the null hypothesis when in fact it should be rejected) - rejects correlation that study caused desired outcomeWhat characterizes Descriptive Laboratory Studies, Descriptive Field Studies, Experimental Laboratory Studies, and Experimental Field Studies?1) Descriptive Laboratory Studies - Characterized by investigations that do not exercise experimental control (such as randomization or manipulation of independent variables) - Low internal validity and low external validity. Also has low generalizability 2) Descriptive Field Studies - Investigations that do not exercise experimental controls and are conducted in real life settings. - Low internal validity and high external validity 3) Experimental Laboratory Studies - Characterized by manipulation of independent variables and are conducted in a laboratory setting. - High internal validity and low external validity - control 4) Experimental Field Studies - Investigations that manipulate independent variables and are conducted in real life settings. - High internal validity and high external validitySocioeconomic Status (SES)An index denoting an individual's position within a hierarchy relative to power, prestige, and control of resourcesIntersexedindividual who is born with male and female sexual anatomyTransgenderAny person whose anatomy, appearance, identity, beliefs, personality, characteristics, demeanor, or behavior diverges from or is perceived to diverge from the prevailing social norms about genderSexualityIncludes reference to sexual behavior, sexual values, preferences for sexual activities, and sexual needsSexual IdentityClaiming sexuality as relevant to self by self-labeling and accepting one's identitySexual orientationSpecific manifestation of sexuality as expressed through sexual, affectional, and relational predispositions toward other persons on the basis of their genderSexual orientation identityInward or outward conscious claiming of those predispositionsWhat are the phases in the research process?1. problem formulation 2. designing the study 3. data collection 4. data processing 5. data analysis 6. interpreting the findings 7. writing the research reportWhat are the Variable-Centered Correlational Research Designs in Quantitative Design?1. Simple Correlation designs 2. multiple regression 3. testing for moderation and mediationWhat are the phases in Qualitative Research, and the tasks for each phase?1. The Researcher as a Multicultural Subject - Identify the social location of the researcher; reflect upon one's assumption and biases germane to the research question and topic area; record biases, assumptions, and values throughout all stages of the research process through memo writing 2. Theoretical/Interpretive Paradigms and Perspectives- Identify philosophical assumptions and values associated with a chosen paradigm; Select paradigm to guide the investigation. 3. Strategies of Inquiry and Interpretive Paradigms - Select a particular strategy of inquiry and interpretive paradigm; Review features specific to the selected paradigm to guide the design of each stage of the research study. 4. Methods of Data Collection & Analysis- Determine how data will be gathered (observation, interviews, existing materials) Determine data coding and analysis as associated with the selected strategy of inquiry and interpretive paradigm 5. The Art, Practices, and Politics of Interpretation and Evaluation - Determine the interpretive approach as guided by the selected strategy of inquiry and interpretive paradigm; Consider the artistic, political implications associated with interpretations offered; Carefully evaluate the research process.What are 4 examples of Qualitative Research, and the tasks for each phase?1. Grounded Theory (GT) - used to study the local interactions and meanings as related to the social context in which they actually appear. Primary features (a) Memo Writing or Memoing, (b) Constant Comparative Method, (c) Theoretical Sampling, (d) The Emerging Theory that is Grounded in Data 2. Phenomenology - To produce an exhaustive description of the phenomena of everyday experience, thus arriving at an understanding of the essential structures of the 'thing itself,' the phenomenon. It is discovery oriented. 3. Consensual Qualitative Research (CR) - A systematic way of examining the representativeness of results across cases through the process of reaching consensus among multiple researchers. It is a relatively new form of inquiry. 4. Participatory Action Research (PAR)/ Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) - Housed within a Critical Theory and Constructivism Paradigm. Belief that the research process is a mechanism of social change. Increased empowerment, in turn, is anticipated to allow participants and their communities to be emancipated from oppression.What are the phases for conducting a mixed methods research?1st- Identify the research problem, question, and purpose 2nd - Articulate the rationale for using mixed methods 3rd - Determine the paradigm that will guide the study 4th - Determine the mixed methods design 5th- Evaluate the study and prepare for disseminationHow are the following different: the Independent variable, the dependent variable, the predictive variable and the criterion variable?In a Quasi design: Predictor (predictive) and criterion (correlation) In a Scientific design: Independent and Dependent (causation)What is the difference between Status Variable and the independent variable?*Counseling Researchers are often interested in Variables that are not amenable to manipulation, Due to either Ethical Constraints or to Logical Impossibilities e.g., partner abuse, gender *Status Variables - All Participant-related variables that cannot be Assigned e.g., SES, Ethnicity. They CANNOT be Manipulated, and statistical Tests Involving Them Detect Associations *Independent Variables- are Manipulated and the Effect on the Dependent Variable is Subsequently Assessed, and a Causal Relationship is Established (if all goes well)What are 6 methods of Data Collection?1. Self-Reports 2. Ratings of Other Persons and Events 3. Behavioral Observations 4. Physiological Indexes 5. Interviews 6. Projective Techniques (Ambiguous Stimuli) 7. Unobtrusive MeasuresWhat is Reactivity?Sometimes, Something about obtaining scores on the dependent measure alters the situation so that "false" readings are obtained. Variables that affect the characteristics of the participants they are intended to measure are said to be reactive.What is the MAXMINCON principle?-Researchers try to MAXIMIZE the systematic variance of the variables under study -MINIMIZE error variance -CONTROL extraneous Variables -extraneous variables and error variance can mask or obscure (make uncertain) the effects of the Independent Variable on the Dependent VariableWhat is the difference between program evaluation and research?Program Evaluation- Most interested in the effectiveness of a particular Program for a particular program for a Particular group of people Research- Typically more interested in enhancing the Profession's knowledge base, such as comparing the efficacy of two particular treatmentsWhat are the 4 phases of program evaluation?1. Setting the Evaluation's Boundaries 2. Selecting Appropriate Evaluation Methods 3. Collecting and Analyzing Information 4. Reporting the Evaluator's Findings and Disseminating the ReportWhat is Error Variance?"noise" or "static" it is variance due to random eventsWhat is Bias? What is explicit bias and implicit bias?BIAS- A Systematic Introduction of extraneous variables that may distort or disguise the relationships among the experimental variables Explicit bias- those that are deliberative and well considered Implicit bias- Those that are more complex, ambivalent, and often unconscious.Describe each of the following researcher/experimenter/investigator bias and state at least one strategy for minimizing each: Experimenter Attributes Investigator/Experimenter Expectancies Experimental Design and Procedures-Experimenter attributes: biological (age, gender, race) and interpersonal characteristics (friendliness, previous contact): use multiple experimenters, analyze whether differences across experimenters exist, specify characteristics of experimenters, refrain from overgeneralizing results -Investigator/Experimenter Expectancies: unintentional expectancy effect (head nods, smiles, glances, subtle comments, enthusiasm): Keep experimenters (partially) blind, assess the accuracy of experimenter expectancies, monitor experimenter involvement -Experimental Design and Procedures: design aspects of the study & various interactions with participants (recruitment, greeting, obtaining informed consent, administering research, reminding): Standardize procedures, reiterate basic procedures, train experimenters, maintain close contact with experiment personnelDescribe each of the following participant bias, and state at least one strategy for minimizing each: Demand Characteristics, Participant characteristics, Participants ability to report the experiences-Demand Characteristics: subtle cues within an experiment that may influence how participants responds (questionnaire instructions, receptionists' nonverbal behaviors): Conduct pilot trials to identify possible issues, conduct postexperimental inquiry to identify unwanted influences -Participant characteristics: self-presentation style, motivation level, intellectual skills, psychological defense, worldview: Keep participants blind to research purpose, assess and adjust for social desirability, minimize concerns about confidentiality, highlight importance of the study, utilize "spot check" items -Participants' ability to report their experiences: difficulty with accurately describing mental process in ambiguous situations (varying processes to access emotions, inaccurate attribution of behavior): Attend to participants' ability to report their cognitive and affective processes, incorporate other assessment methods (physiological indicators)