Unit 3: Photosynthesis (Biology Chapter 8)
Terms in this set (44)
(8.1) Energy comes in many forms including:
light, heat, and electricity. can be stored in chemical compounds
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
compound that consists of adenine, a 5-carbon sugar called ribose, and 3 phosphate groups.
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
like ATP, but with only 2 phosphate groups. Becomes ATP when another phosphate group is added durin Light Reaction Cycle (LRC)
easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups. This characteristic makes ATP exceptionally useful as a basic energy source for all cells.
One way that cells use ATP:
to carry out active transport
Energy from ATP also powers...
important events such as synthesizing proteins, synthesizing responses to chemical signals in cell surface, and even to produce light (in a firefly)
Most cells have a _________ amount of ATP.
organisms that obtain food by consuming other living things. (ex. everything but plants)
All energy in food originates...
from the sun.
organism that use light energy from the sun to produce food. (ex. plants, algae, some bacteria)
process by which autotrophs use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
In the process of photosynthesis...
plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates.
Photosynthetic organisms capture energy from sunlight with...
the plants principal pigments
2 Types of chlorophyll found in plants:
chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b absorb which color spectrums very well?
blue-violet and red regions.
Chlorophyll ___________ green light, which is why plants look green.
pigments that absorb colors in other parts of the spectrum such as red, orange, and yellow.
The carotenes' colors are shown during...
the fall season.
organelles in which photosynthesis takes place
sacklike photosynthetic membranes where the LRC takes place
Granum (pl. grana)
a stack of thylakoids
The fluid inside the chloroplast
Chloroplasts have _(how many?)__ membrane(s).
An electron carrier is a...
compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule.
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP+)
the electroncarrier molecule whose job is to accept and hold 2 high energy electrons and one hydrogen ion (H+)
NADP+ with a hydrogen ion added on. Carries these electrons to chemical reactions somewhere else in the sell (Calvin Cycle/light-independent reaction). Used to form glucose and other carbohydrates.
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert...
Water and carbon dioxide to sugars and oxygen.
Plants use the sugars to...
produce complex carbs. such as starches, and to provide energy for the synthesis of other compounds including proteins and lipids.
Reaction formulas for Photosynthesis:
Carbon Dioxide+Water---->Sugars and Oxygen (words)
(Other) reaction formula for Photosynthesis
Light-Dependent Reactions (Light Cycle)
happens during the day for most plants. Produces ATP and NADPH+ for later and Oxygen is a byproduct. Takes place on the thylakoid membrane. Water is required.
Light-Dependent Reactions (Dark Cycle/Calvin Cycle)
uses ATP, NADPH+, and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to make sugars for the plant. Takes place in the stroma.
(8.3) The LDRS (light-dependent reactions) use energy from the sunlight to produce...
oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into ATP and NADPH+
The Calvin Cycle
a.k.a. the Light-independent reactions (LIRS)/dark cycle
Calvin Cycle in a nutshell in plain English:
6 carbon dioxide molecules enter through the atmosphere, ATP and NADPH+ uses its charged molecules to split them into two groups: half will go out to become sugars, lipids, etc. half will continue on for the next cycle. (ATP and NADPH+ return to being ADP and NADP+) The whole point of the cycle is to make sugars for the plant.
3 factors that affect Photosynthesis
temperature, light intensity, and availability of water.
the pores in the leaves of the plant
photosynthesis (know all the words on this picture!)
All life depends on