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ARTS 1: Devotion to the Black Nazarene as an Aesthetic Experience
Terms in this set (43)
Celia M. Bonilla
1. January 9 - Feast of the Black Nazarene
2. Good Friday
3. December 31 - Start of 9-day novena mass
Ways of Devotion
1. Donate huge amounts of money
2. Serve in the church
3. Walk on knees
4. Join crowded processions (Barefoot)
Two Types of Human Experience
1. Tangible and Communal
2. Intangible and Personal
Loob and Kalooban (Heart and Will)
Domains where devotees build an inner life
- From Greek word: "Aesthetikos" relating to the "perception of the senses"
- Coined in Germany during the mid-18th century as "concerned with beauty"
Aesthetics Before (18th-19th Century)
Defined as "beauty enjoyed for its own sake" from "Perception"
Defined as a Human Experience:
- Timothy Binkly: An aesthetic experience elicited by artworks, nature and non-artistic artifacts
- John Dewey: Experience has a satisfying emotional quality because it possesses internal integration and fulfillment reach through ordered and organized movement
Robots or Free Agents?
Questions to what extent is human freedom conditioned/determined by broader realities
Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA) by Louis Althusser:
1. Each of us acts out the prescriptions of ideological superstructures.
2. Each of us has a consciousness that is at the center of a will that leads to individual action.
- This fails to explain satisfactorily individual freedom in the context of dissent. Freedom is described as accepting subjection.
As Free Agents
1. Alternative Voices (Mikhail Bakhtin)
2. Free Agency (Pierre Bourdieu)
3. Sense of Self (Robert Desjarlais)
There are multiple and different voices in a given community whereas many are conventional, while others contradict the convention.
Every individual has HABITUS influenced by history and social structure. However, this is not stable, permanent conditioning.
Structuring the Structuring Structures
Individual (can feel physically what is good) --> Social Structure Influence --> Alternative Behavior --> Majority adopts
- Ordinary people assume that the Church officials are the authority on matters concerning the ultimate in life. However, actions of Nazarene devotees prove otherwise.
- People have taken over and imposed their own practices and beliefs.
Sense of Self
Experience is the result of specific cultural articulation of selfhood, as well as certain social and technological conditions that foster and legitimate that sense of self
Superior Subordinate Relationship
A two-way power structure
PH Power Play
Less rigid than the west (individuals can reject a mode of behavior prescribed by a leader)
Fluid Concept of Power (Fenella Cannell)
Power is not permanent, it shifts through negotiations among social actors
Individual devotees have their own ways of actualizing meanings and own explanations
According to the Church
1. The Nazarene is a mute statue representing Christ.
2. Processions and novenas are not as important as the mass.
3. Walking on knees should not be done during mass.
* Followers of Senyor emulate the icon of a struggling Christ. Yet, they wield a certain power over the figure.
Norms of Devotion
a. From individual/silent to communal/noisy
b. From looking to images to holding symbols
* Chores done on the Nazarene (i.e. cleaning, robing and setting on shoulders) make the Santo look helpless.
System of Signs (3 Types of Signs)
1. Iconic (physical resemblance) - sacred images
2. Indexical (direct link between sign and object)
3. Symbolic (no resemblance; holds meaning) - cross
Image on Sense of Sight
1. Life-sized wooden icon representing Nazarene on the road to crucifixion
2. Maroon velvet robe w/ collar and sleeves accentuated w/ white ruffs
3. Crown of thorns w/ 3 potensiyas of beaten gold (Rays of light)
4. Genuflects on the left knee
5. Right hand is raised (to support cross on right shoulder); free left hand
6. Made of dark wood (became even darker through years of wiping balsam oil and perfume)
1. High altar image - original head; body is made of molave wood
2. Processional image - original body; head is made of batikuling wood
Substitutions made by NARCISO MAGLAQUI
Image on Sense of Smell
1. Rich scent of musk on clean wood (when kissing the foot)
2. Perfume sprayed on robe and drapes
3. Wooden image wiped with balsam oil (balsam santo) when clothes are changed every 1st Wednesday of the month
4. The icon does not offend the olfactory sense although acquiring strong odors/souring smell of perspiration.
Image on Sense of Hearing
1. Whispers of the people during prayer or conservations
2. Shuffle of feet going around the Senyor
3. Very high decibel level inside the Church due to many people
4. Hijos de Nazareno (Sons of the Nazarene) barking orders for people
5. Applause once image is returned
Image on Sense of Touch
1. Bodies very close during procession
2. Kissing and wiping the foot, body and clothes of image
3. Pulling ropes of the carroza
4. Walking barefoot and on knees
5. Fingering rosary beads
Scents, Sounds, Touch, Appearance
Creates a mood that transcends the everyday and connects with the other world in order to achieve aesthetic satisfaction when communicating with the image.
Visits within the Quiapo Church
Days other than Fridays and Wednesdays
- Average of 7,000 people (6:00-9:30)
- 4,000 communicants
Fridays, Wednesdays, Sundays
- Average of 60,000 people (6:00-10:00)
- 20,000 communicants
People of the Quiapo Church
1. Devotees - come from different places, economic and cultural backgrounds who are driven as one by the Panata
2. Employees/Volunteers - about 70 people
a) parish priest, 10 diocesan priests
b) lectors, commentators, lay ministers, members of groups
- Hijos de Nazareno
- Apostolado ng Panalangin
- Faith healers: perform healing trances and speaking in tongues
Center ritual of Christian life
Praying rosary during mass
Walking on knees
The Quiapo Church
Representation of Church's organization and ritual
For devotees, the Church has a healing effect as a pooling of faith
- Route: Quirino Grandstand --> Quiapo Church
- Since early 19th century
- Holy masses celebrated one after another
Processional floats on wheels
Platform carried on the shoulders
Images in the Translacion
- Black Nazarene
- Istandartes (Banners)
- Own Images
- Virgin Mary
Observed Activities during the Translacion
- Pulling of Ropes
- Movements and Rhythms
--> January 9 procession seem to proclaim hegemony (dominance) of catholic ideology in PH society, but it actually shows its limitations.
--> Before WW2, the procession was more organized.
Reasons for the Procession
1. Express gratitude
2. Ask favors
3. Experience miracle
- Pleasure after procession
- Differences dissolve in a momentary feeling of communitas (a vivid sense of oneness)
Embodied Values of the Procession
1. Sense of Communication
2. Sense of Milagro (Miraculous)
3. Commitment to Reciprocate (Through Panata)
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