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"Lighting Wars" type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939


doctrine of communal control of means of production

conservative authoritarianism

the old-fashioned form of governmental control, exemplified by Catherine the Great. It tried to prevent major social changes

modern totalitarianism

________ believed in will power, conflict, the worship of violence and the idea that the individual was less valuable than the state.

the final solution

The Nazi cover-up name for the plan to annihilate all of the Jews

socialism in one country

Plan to keep communism only in Russia to avoid another war


practice of giving in to an aggressor nation's demands in order to keep peace


A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.

Weimar Republic

The new German republic that in 1921 owed 33 billion to the allied reparations commission. In order to recover from its severe economic issues the annual fees were reduced each year depending on the level of German economic prosperity and Germany received large loans each year from the United States.

National Socialist German Worker's party

abbreviated Nazi, it called for the repudiation of the Treaty of Vienna, the unification of Austria and Germany, and the exclusion of Jews from German citizenship


Prosperous Russian Peasents that - under Stalin - were sent to Labor Camps as punishment for being succesful

Nazi Labor Front

Professional people like doctors, lawyers, teachers, and engineers saw their previously independent organizations swallowed up by Nazi associations. The associations took control of publishing houses, universities and writers. (973)

Nazi Storm Troopers

The SA, a quasi-military band which fought Jews and communists, and eventually took over the army.

Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp

A Nazi death/concentration camp. Many Jews were taken in overcrowded trains and tortured, and burned to death. They were stripped of everything. The families were split. They burned the babies and women, and also anyone who was not able to work. Many were put in ovens and tortured in gas chambers. (990)

German Social Democrats

Bismarck's enemy of the empire, it briefly became a clandestine organization who supported socialism. After Bismarck's resignation it was the largest bloc to the Reichstag.

New Economic Policy

Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans. (See also Lenin, Vladimir.) (p. 766)

March on Rome

Event in 1922 that displaces King Victor Emmaneul and establishes Mussolini as leader of Italy

Munich plot

? Possibly a plan to kill Hitler, but I'm not sure

Great Depression

the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s

Munich Conference

1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.

Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact

Germany and Soviet Union promised not to attack each other; leads to the invasion of Poland

five year plans

Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. (781)

Grand Alliance

Led by the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, was determined to smash the Nazi order

Battle of Stalingrad

Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.

Battle of El Alamein

1942-British victory in WWII that stopped the Axis forces from advancing into Northern Africa

Battle of the Coral Sea

A battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia.

Normandy invasion

AKA D-day. The American and British invasion of France in World War II; Normandy is a province of northern France. The successful invasion began a series of victories for the Allies, and Germany surrendered less than a year later

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman

Vladimir Lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)

Leon Trotsky

Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Second Revolution

when the Bolsheviks under Lenin took control of the provisional government in the name of the Petrograd Soviet but then created a one party government in 1917

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)

Black Shirts

supporters of mussolini, broke up socialist rallies, smashed leftists presses and attacked farmer's cooperatives

Victor Emmanuel III

King of Italy who gave Mussolini legitimacy as dictator

Lateran Agreement of 1929

Mussolini tried to gain support of the Catholic church; recognized the Vatican as an independent state and agreed to give the church heavy financial support

Adolph Hitler

german leader of Nazi Party. 1933-1945. rose to power by promoting racist and national views

Karl Lueger

Socialist mayor of Vienna who influenced Hitler to hate capitalism, Jews, Marxian socialism, and classical liberalism.


Hitler's title as Germany's dictator

German Communists


Paul von Hindenberg

Conservative who became president following Ebert 2) Conservative 3) his election spelled defeat to center and social democratic parties; after he died Hitler used Article 48 to rule himself as dictator

Enabling Act

enabled Hitler to get rid of the Reichstag parliament and pass laws without reference to parliament

Heinrich Himmler

German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)

Nuremberg Laws

Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.

Rome-Berlin Axis

mussolini-hitler alliance

Francisco Franco

Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death (1892-1975)


a predominantly German area in Czechoslovakia that Hitler overtook

Winston Churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.

New Order

Hitler's plan for organizing Europe into a single political and economic system ruled by Germany


the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler

Europe first

Military strategy adopted by the United States that required concentrating on the defeat of Germany while maintaining a holding action against Japan in the Pacific.

Franklin Roosevelt

the 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.

Charles de Gaulle

French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)

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