28 terms

Unit 4A: Great War and Russian Revolution (1914-1922)

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World War I
(1914 - 1918) European war in which an alliance including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States defeated the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
Total War
A war in which distinctions between the soldiers on the battlefield and civilians at home are blurred, and where the government plans and controls economic and social life in order to supply the armies at the front with supplies and weapons.
Triple Alliance
The alliance of Austria, Germany, and Italy. Italy left the alliance when war broke out in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched a war of aggression.
Schlieffen Plan
Failed German plan calling for a lightning attack through neutral Belgium and a quick defeat of France before turning on Russia.
Triple Entente
The alliance of Great Britain, France, and Russia prior to and during the First World War.
Trench Warfare
A type of fighting used in World War I behind rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire; the cost in lives was staggering and the gains in territory minimal.
Armenian Genocide (1915)
Some welcome the Russians as liberators. Muslim Ottoman government orders a genocidal mass deportation of Armenians- 1.5 million died from murder, starvation and disease.
Russian Revolution (1905)
Spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country's defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905; the revolution was suppressed, but it forced the government to make substantial reforms.
Russian Revolution (1917)
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'Soviets') which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the Soviets.
Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.
Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
A leader who had planned the 1917 takeover and formed the Red Army. "Permanent revolution" -Socialism in the Soviet Union could only succeed if rev. quickly spread throughout Europe. Defeated by Stalin, who eventually killed him and rose to power.
Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
After Lenin died in 1924, he defeated Trotsky to gain power in the U.S.S.R. He created consecutive five year plans to expand heavy industry. He tried to crush all opposition and ruled as the absolute dictator of the U.S.S.R. until his death.
Petrograd Soviet
A huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals modeled on the revolutionary soviets of 1905.
Bolsheviks
Lenin's radical, revolutionary arm of the Russian party of Marxist socialism, which successfully installed a dictatorial socialist regime in Russia.
Mensheviks
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. The Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
War Communism
The application of centralized state control during the Russian civil war, in which the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918)
1. Ended Bolshevik Russia's participation in World War I
2. Negotiated by Vladimir Lenin because he was unwilling to risk Bolshevik gains by continuing a war that could no longer be won
3. Nullified following Germany's defeat by the Allies
Casualties of World War I
The casualties on all sides came to about 10 million dead and twice as many wounded, and the financial resources of the European states were badly strained.
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Treaty that ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and England desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitler's rise of power in Germany in 1930s.
Georges Clemenceau (1841-1929) - France
A French statesman who led the nation to victory in the First World War. A leader of the Radical Party, he played a central role in politics after 1870. Clemenceau served as the Prime Minister of France from 1906 to 1909, and again from 1917 to 1920. He was one of the principal architects of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Nicknamed "Le Tigre" (The Tiger), he took a very harsh position against defeated Germany and won agreement on Germany's payment of large sums for reparations.
David Lloyd George (1863-1945) - Great Britain
Lloyd George was a key figure in the introduction of many reforms which laid the foundations of the modern welfare state. His most important role came as the highly energetic Prime Minister of the Wartime Coalition Government (1916-22), during and immediately after the First World War. He was a major player at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that reordered Europe after the defeat of the Central Powers.
Vittorio Orlando (1860-1952) - Italy
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points. Orlando dramatically left the conference early in April 1919.[13] He returned briefly the following month, but was forced to resign just days before the signing of the resultant Treaty of Versailles.
War Guilt Clause
An article in the Treaty of Versailles that declared that Germany (with Austria) was solely responsible for the war and had to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the fighting.
Fourteen Points
President Woodrow Wilson's 1918 peace proposal calling for open diplomacy, a reduction in armaments, freedom of commerce and trade, the establishment of the League of Nations, and national self-determination
League of Nations
A permanent international organization, established during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, designed to protect member states from aggression and avert future wars. It was not so effective in achieving its goals.
national self-determination
The notion that peoples should be able to choose their own national governments through democratic majority-rule elections and live free from outside interference in nation-states with clearly defined borders.
Mandate System
The plan to allow Britain and France to administer former Ottoman territories, put into place after the end of the First World War.
Balfour Declaration (1917)
A 1917 British statement that declared British support of a National Home for the Jewish People in Palestine.
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