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Organizational Leadership Final Exam
Terms in this set (100)
Essence of the Trait Approach - what is it really?
There are certain traits one must possess to be a leader. Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Emotional Stability (Neuroticism), Agreeableness. The others are Charisma and Emotional Intelligence.
The tendency to be thorough, organized, controlled, dependable, and decisive.
Openness to Experience
The tendency to be informed, creative, insightful, and curious.
Emotional Stability (Neuroticism)
The tendency to be depressed, anxious, insecure, vulnerable, and hostile (low Emotional Stability).
The tendency to be accepting, conforming, trusting, and nurturing.
Set higher performance expectations and personal goals for themselves, and are generally more motivated and absent less.
Associated with better customer relations and conflict resolution.
High Emotional Stability (low Neuroticism)
Pople tend to work better in high-stress situations.
Low Openness to Experience
Change resistance. These individuals may struggle in dynamic, fast change occupations.
Related to success in occupations requiring high social interaction (e.g., sales and some managerial positions).
Introverts vs. Extroverts in the workplace/leading
Introverts are less likely to be absent from work, but extroverts are more likely to be considered leaders.
Trait Approach Strengths
1. Intuitive appeal
2. Over a century of research support
3. Deep understanding of the leader in the process
4. Provides information about what people are looking for in leaders (self-awareness and developmental possibilities)
Trait Approach Criticisms
1. Failure to provide a definitive list of traits
2. Failure to take situations into account
3. Highly subjective interpretation of most important traits
4. Failure to look at relationships between traits and outcomes
Focus on what leaders do and how they act (combine behaviors to influence followers toward goal accomplishment). Leadership is composed of task and relationship behaviors.
Ohio State researchers - Initiating Structure
Degree of desired organization & structure - behavior that tries to organize work, goals, and work relationships. This leader assigns group members to particular tasks, or emphasizes the meeting of deadlines.
Ohio State researchers - Consideration
Degree of concern for others - includes concern for the comfort, status, satisfaction, and well-being of subordinates. This leader helps subordinates with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, and treats subordinates as equals.
University of Michigan researchers - Employee-oriented leaders
Emphasize personal relationships, care about the needs of their subordinates, and accept individual differences among them. (People-focused leaders).
University of Michigan researchers - Production-oriented leaders
Emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job (Task-focused leaders ). Their main concern was accomplishing their group's tasks, and the group members were a means to that end.
Scandinavian researchers - Development-oriented leaders
Value experimentation, seeking out new ideas, and promote change (Change-focused leaders).
Strengths of the Behavioral Approach
1. Shifts the focus of leadership research
2. Principles supported by research
3. Leader's style largely comprised of two principal behaviors
4. Provides a method to help learn
Criticisms of the Behavioral Approach
1. The link between leader's behaviors and performance outcomes is inconsistent
2. Approach failed to find universal leadership style effective for all situations
3. Implies that the most effective leadership style is "high-high"
Focuses on leadership in situations. Effectiveness achieved by adapting the right style to the demands of the situation.
Fiedler's Contingency Theory
Effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader's style and situational demands (the degree of control the situation gives to the leader).
Contingency Dimensions: Leader-Member Relations
The degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader.
Contingency Dimensions: Task Structure
The degree to which the job assignments are structured or unstructured.
Contingency Dimensions: Position Power
The degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases.
Step 1: Defining the situation
After assessing leadership style, it is necessary to match the leader with the situation.
Step 2: Evaluate the situation
- Leader-member relations are either good or poor
- Task structure is either high or low
- Position power is either strong or weak
The better the leader-member relations, then what?
The more highly structured the job, stronger the position power, and more control the leader has.
When do task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders perform best?
Task-oriented = in situations of extreme high or low control
Relationship-oriented = in situations of moderate control
Hersey & Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model (SLII)
Leadership is composed of both a Directive and Supportive (behavioral) dimension.
What is the Situational (Contingency) variable in the SLII?
The development level of followers.
Development is represented by what?
Commitment and competence.
Goal achievement (telling what should be done).
Goal achievement and meeting socio-emotional needs.
Listening, praising, asking for input, and giving feedback.
Facilitating confidence (less goal input and social support offered) .
D1: Low in Competence and High in Commitment
D2: Some Competence, but Low in Commitment
D3: Moderate to High Competence, but Variable Commitment
D4: High in Competence and High in Commitment
What development levels are used with which leadership styles?
D4 & D3 with Supportive and Delegating, D2 & D1 with Coaching and Directing.
The theory that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered satisfying rewards.
What does Expectancy Theory explain?
A lot of workers merely do the minimum necessary to get by.
What is the key to Expectancy Theory?
Understanding an individual's goals and the linkages between
1. Effort and performance
2. Performance and rewards
3. Rewards and individual goal satisfaction
- Distributive justice: the perceived fairness of the amount & allocation of rewards among individuals.
- Procedural justice: the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.
What does distributive justice have a greater influence on?
What does procedural justice have an effect on?
An employee's organizational commitment, trust in their boss, and intention to turnover.
Employees with high procedural justice do what?
View their bosses and the organization positively even if they're dissatisfied with pay, promotions, and other personal outcomes.
Herzber's Two-Factor Theory (Motivation-Hygiene Theory)
- Deals primarily with the job satisfaction organizational outcome
- Asks the question: "What do people want from their jobs?"
- He asked people to describe situations in which they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs
Results of satisfied and dissatisfied employees in Two-Factor Theory
- Satisfied employees tended to cite intrinsic factors, such as advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievement.
- Dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic factors, such as supervision, pay, company policies, and working conditions.
Quality of supervision, rate of pay, company policies, working conditions, relations with others, job security.
Career advancement, personal growth, recognition, responsibility, achievement.
What happens when managers eliminate job satisfaction?
They may not necessarily motivate employees.
Removing dissatisfying hygiene characteristics from a job does not necessarily do what?
Increase job satisfaction, it just makes those intrinsic things adequate.
What happens when hygiene factors are adequate?
People will not be dissatisfied, but they won't necessarily have high job satisfaction. Intrinsic motivating factors must be present to achieve that.
Doing what is largely attributed to Herzberg's findings and recommendations?
Vertically expanding jobs to allow workers greater responsibility.
Enhancing follower motivation to accomplish goals. Leadership generates motivation when it increases the payoffs followers receive from their work and it makes the path to the goal clear and easy.
Leaders select behaviors best suited for what?
To followers' needs and followers' work situation. Behaviors supplement/complement what is "missing".
How do leaders improve follower performance and satisfaction via motivation?
1. Defining goals
2. Clarifying the path
3. Removing obstacles
4. Providing support
Directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented
- Need for Affiliation
- Preferences for Structure (i.e., dogmatic and authoritarian vs. a more liberal or tolerant)
- Desire for Control (Internal vs. External Locus of Control)
-Self-Perceived Level of Ability (Task Specific Self Efficacy)
- Design of the Followers Task (is the task clearly structured?)
-Formal Authority System of the Organization (how clear are rules and work requirements; who is responsible for what?)
-Primary Work Group (are there supportive norms in the group?)
Use Directive Leadership when
Task: Ambiguous, complex, and unclear
Use Supportive Leadership when
Followers: Need Affiliation (human touch)
Use Participative Leadership when
Followers: Autonomous; need Internal Locus of Control and task clarity
Task: Ambiguous, unstructured, and unclear authority rules
Use Achievement-Oriented Leadership when
Followers: Need to Excel & High Expectations (relative to Task Specific Self-Efficacy)
Path-Goal Theory Strengths
- Specifies how leader behaviors affect followers' satisfaction and performance
- Tries to integrate specific motivation principles into leadership theory
- Provides a model than can be very practical
- Tells leaders to clarify the path and remove obstacles to goals
Path-Goal Theory Criticisms
- Complex and confusing interpretation (difficult to fully use the theory)
- Only partial support from research studies
- Fails to adequately explain the relationship between leader behavior and follower motivation
- Leadership seems to be treated as a one-way event
Followers in the In-Group
• Receive more information, influence, confidence, and concern (from their leaders)
• Are more dependable, more involved, and more communicative
Followers in the Out-Group
• Are less compatible with the leader
• Come to work, do their job, and go home
According to LMX, group relationship type is based on the nature of the reciprocal work relationship - determined in part by:
- Individual differences (e.g., personality)
- Follower willingness to negotiate expanded role responsibilities
Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)
Centered on the interactions between leaders and followers. The dyadic relationship is the focus, initially called vertical dyad linkages.
Leadership Making-Prescriptive Approach
Emphasizing developing high quality exchanges.
Phase 1: Stranger
Roles - Scripted; Influences - One Way; Exchanges - Low Quality; Interests - Self.
Phase 2: Acquaintance
Roles - Tested; Influences - Mixed; Exchanges - Medium Quality; Interests - Self and Other.
Phase 3: Partner
Roles - Negotiated; Influences - Reciprocal; Exchanges - High Quality; Interests - Group.
Why is LMX important for recognizing in and out groups?
- Goals accomplished differently with each group (issues of effectiveness)
- Actions/benefits of members are different in each group (issues of fairness)
Prescriptively, why does LMX tell us to create special relationships with all followers?
- Offer all followers opportunities for new roles and responsibilities
- Build trust, respect, and partnerships with all followers
Inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization. They transform followers from being individualistic to collectivistic and raise followers' awareness about the value of idealized goals. They attempt to instill in followers the ability to question established views to do what was previously thought impossible.
Transformational Leadership Factors
(1) Idealized Influence
(2) Inspirational Motivation
(3) Intellectual Stimulation
(4) Individualized Consideration
Bennis and Nanus (Four Common Transformational Strategies)
• Leaders have a clear vision of the "future state"
• Leaders are social architects
• Leaders create trust
• Leaders use a creative deployment of self
Leading is a conscious choice that comes from a "need" to serve. Leaders make sure other people's highest priority needs are served. Followers grow being served and become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, and more likely to become servants.
Servant Leadership Characteristics
- More naturally suited to some (trait vs. behavior?)
- Greater good orientation (strong ethical/moral underpinnings
- Differentiation characteristics from other approaches
Model of Servant Leadership - Antecedent Conditions
- Context and Culture
- Leader Attributes
- Follower Receptivity
Model of Servant Leadership - Outcomes
- Follower Performance and Growth
- Organizational Performance
- Societal Impact
Model of Servant Leadership - Servant Leader Behaviors
- Emotional Healing
- Putting Followers First
- Helping Followers Grow and Succeed
- Behaving Ethically
- Creating Value for the Community
Strengths of Servant Leadership
1. Only approach framed around caring for others
2. Influence not based on intuition
3. Servant Leadership is not presented as a cure-all approach
4. Sound measures have been developed to assess it
Criticisms of Servant Leadership
1. Semantics/Paradox of title may diminish value
2. No real consensus on common definition
3. Altruistic focus has a Utopian "ring" that conflicts with other leadership approaches
4. Central role of "conceptualizing" is unclear
Steiner's Group Productivity Equation
AP = PP - PL + S
AP: Actual Productivity
PP: Potential Productivity
PL: Process Losses
S: Synergy* NOT INCLUDED IN STEINER'S ORIGINAL EQUATION
Building the Team: Phase 1, Task Analysis
- What work needs to be performed?
- How much authority does the group have to manage its own work?
- What is the focus of work the group will do?
- What is the degree of interdependence among team managers?
- Is there only one correct solution, or is the task more subjective?
- Are team members' interests aligned or competitive
Building the Team: Phase 2, People
- How many people should be on the team?
- Who is ideally suited to do the work?
- What technical, task management, and interpersonal skills are required?
- What types of diversity are optimal in the team?
Building the Team: Phase 3, Relationships
- How do team members socialize each other?
- What roles are (implicitly) negotiated among team members?
- What norms are harmful for the group?
- Is cohesion among team members important?
- How is trust, developed, threatened, and rebuilt among team members?
Degree to which task requires collective action (concerns the way inputs go into the work and how the work process is carried out).
Types of Task Interdependence
Pooled, Sequential, Reciprocal, Team.
What do higher levels of task interdependence result in?
- Strong norms developed relating to cooperative, helping and sharing behaviors
- Increased cognitive complexity
- Better interpersonal relationships and skills
- Positive effects on learning
Team Norms: Development
- Actions/behaviors at first meeting
- Explicit statements made by leaders/others
- Past experiences
- Critical events in the team's history
Team Norms: Enforcement
Types of Teams (Galbraith)
- Functional work teams
- Problem-solving work teams
- Multidisciplinary (cross functional) teams
- Self-managing work teams
Model of Team Effectiveness: Organization & Team Environment
- Reward systems
- Communication Systems
- Physical Space
Model of Team Effectiveness: Team Design
- Task Characteristics
- Team Size
- Team Composition
Model of Team Effectiveness: Team Processes
- Team Development
- Team Norms
- Team Roles
- Team Cohesiveness
Model of Team Effectiveness: Team Effectiveness
- Achieve Organizational Goals
- Satisfy Member Needs
- Maintain Team Survival