The degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior.
Environmental agents that can produce a birth defect.
Emotional bond between a child and another person.
Rigid and punitive
Parents who are warm, but who have relaxed direction
Firm parents who reason with their children and explain things to them.
Show little interest in their children.
First stage of psychosocial development.
The period during which, according to Erikson, toddlers (aged 18 months to 3 years) develop independence and autonomy if they are allowed the freedom to explore, or shame and self-doubt if they are restricted and overprotected
according to Erikson, the period during which children aged 3 to 6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action
according to Erikson, the last stage of childhood, during which children age 6 to 12 years may develop positive social interactions with others or may feel inadequate and become less sociable
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
2-7 years old and language develops
a way of thinking in which a child views the world entirely from his or her own perspective
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
An awareness and knowledge of one's mental processes such that one can monitor, regulate, and direct them to a desired end, self-mediation.
zone of proximal development
Phase at which a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support.
Identity versus role confusion
According to Erikson, the major developmental task of adolescence is developing a stable ego identity, or sense of who one is. Failure results in developing a negative identity or in role confusion.
intimacy versus isolation
6th stage of Erikson's Psychosocial development. This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships. Those who are successful at this step will form relationships that are committed and secure.
Generativity versus stagnation
A conflict of middle adulthood in which self-interest is countered by an interest in guiding the next generation.
Integrity versus despair
According to Erickson, the process in late life by which people try to make sense of their lives
A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning