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Lateralization, Sleep, and theories of aging
Terms in this set (43)
what are the infant states of consciousness?
-Active Sleep (with movements and irregular breathing)
-Fussy or crying
Stages of sleep?
N-REM (stage 1-4)
REM (stage 5)
-(2 min) irregular EEG waves
-Awakened easily, heart rate and breathing slows
Stage one of sleep (light sleep)
the feeling that you are falling if you fall asleep too quickly
-(20 mins) sleep spindles
-½ of the night
stage two of sleep
-(few mins) sleep spindles
-delta waves (<50%)
stage three of sleep (SLOW WAVE)
-(30 min) delta waves, sleep walking, enuresis (bed wetting), restorative
-night terrors occur during this stage
Stage four of sleep (SLOW WAVE)
-Rapid Eye Movements
-Necessary for memory consolidation
-Irregular EEG, heart rate, and breathing increase
-PGO spikes activate motor and visual cortex
-Body response inhibited
-Difficult to wake by environmental stimuli
-Most likely to awake spontaneously
Stage 5 of sleep (REM)
-Internal stimulation from PGO spikes
-Visual, auditory, motor areas active
-Complex tasks learned better with REM sleep
- By activating theta rhythm, PGO spikes prime the hippocampus to save information
-Theta waves function as signal enhancer
-Memory consolidation of the days events.
functions of sleep
when does memory consolidation occur?
-Rapid Eye Movement
-Complex tasks learned better with REM sleep
-By activating theta rhythm, PGO spikes prime the hippocampus to "save" information
-Memory consolidation of the day's events,
-Rapid Eye Movement
-Brain is active
1. Internal stimulation from "PGO spikes"
2. Visual auditory, motor areas active
3. PFC active
- Memory consolidation
1. Primed hippocampus
a. Theta waves and repetitive firing
a. Part of the Limbic system
b. Memory structure
3. Theta Waves
a. Regularly repeating waves at 6 cycles per second
b. Produced by areas of the hippocampus and surrounding cortex
c. Awake animals produce theta rhythm during behaviors learned for survival
d. Asleep animals produce theta wave during REM sleep
e. Cell in the hippocampus fire longer (more times) in responses to a single stimulus during theta wave production
What happens/ how to tell when a person is in REM sleep?
-Pontine Geniculate Occipital
Brain stem Thalamus Visual Cortex
-Originate in brainstem area (pons)
-Activates visual cortex and motor cortex
-Inhibits motor neurons in spinal cord
-Stimulates rapid eye movements
-Causes theta rhythm in hippocampus
1. Theta waves function as signal enhancer
What happens in the frontal lobes during REM?
-They strive to make sense of these random internal sensations = dreams
-Activation-Synthesis (model of dreaming)
What percentage of a newborn's sleep is spent in REM?
what percentage of 6 month olds sleep is spent in REM?
what percentage of adults/children's sleep is spent in REM?
-Regularly repeating waves @ 6 cycles per second
-Produced by areas of the hippocampus and surrounding cortex.
- Awake animals produce theta rhythm during behaviors learned for survival.
-Asleep animals produce theta wave during REM sleep
-Cell in the hippocampus fire longer (4 times) in response to a single stimulus during theta wave production.
-upper limit/maximum number of years a person can live
-Currently: 120-125 years
-the number of years an average person will live (born in particular year)
-US = 78.3 years
- how long a particular individual lives
-EX: Jane Doe 1912-1988
what factors effect the life expectancy?
Health conditions and medical care can determine life expectancy. Life expectancy differs between ethnic groups and gender.
someone who has lived 100 years or more
someone who has lived 110 years or more
Leonard Hayflick's theory that the number of times human cells can divide is about 50-60. As we age, our cells become less able to divide. Bcs of telomere cap.
cellular clock theory
- Are species specific, environmentally influenced
-Chromosome caps of repeats
-Prevent cross-linking of separate chromosomes
-Prevent loss of functional genes
-damage caused by oxygen free radicals - especially to mitochondria
-Using oxygen and digesting nutrienrs produce free radicals
-Free radicals have an unpaired electron in outer shell- very reactive
-Antioxidants work by safely donating an electron
decreased ability to produce energy, increase waste products
aging in the body's hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease. (sex hormones, hGH, IGF-I, melatonin, DHEA)
cells and tissues that vital parts that wear out resulting in aging. Parts of the body eventually wear out from repeated use, killing them and then the body.
Wear and tear Theory
-hormones control biological clock that influences the aging process
-Sex hormones (estrogen & testosterone)
-IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor)
-immune system declines over time which increases vulnerability to infection and disease
-Based on two discoveries:
1. Protective immune reaction decline with age.
2. Aging immune system loses ability to distinguish between self and non-self (instead of attacking proteins of the body as if they were invaders
-Less oxidative stress
-Caloric Restriction also activates this chift
-The type of caloric restriction determines which cell signaling pathway is affected
-Stress-Response Genes and Nutrient-Sensor genes
a. Support growth and reproduction
1.When there is plentiful food and low stress levels
b.Induce cell production and maintenance
1. And extend the lifespan
2. Under harsh conditions
c. These pathways could have evolved simply to allow animals to survive harsh, life-threatening environments
-Classic intra-cellular signaling pathways and transcription factors regulate aging.
a. Stress-response genes and nutrient sensor genes affect aging by causing changes in these pathways
1.kinase target of rapamycin (TOR)
2.AMP kinase & DAF-16/FOXO
3.insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)
Caloric Restriction and Longevity
What are the three patterns of restriction that affect different cellular mechanisms?
1. Life-long food limitations
2. every other day fasting
3. dietary restriction in middle age
-Kinase target of rapamycin (TOR)
-The TOR kinase is a major amino-acid and nutrient sensor that stimulates growth, promotes translation and blocks salvage pathways such as autophagy when food is plentiful.
-Inhibiting the TOR pathway increases lifespan in many species, from yeast to mice
-In worms, flies, and mice, chronic dietary restriction increases life span by down-regulating TOR activity.
-Low TOR could be triggered by amino-acid limitation
Life-long food limitation
-In worms, every-other-day feeding extends lifespan by inhibiting insulin/IGF-1 signaling
-In Drosophila, inhibiting insulin/IGF-1 signaling systemically specifically in adipose tissue increases lifespan
-In mice, a striking inverse correlation between IGF-1 levels and lifespan
-In small dogs having a mutation that decreases IGF-1levels, longer life than large dogs.
-In humans, mutations known to impair IGF-1 receptor function are overrepresented in a cohort of Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians and variants in the insulin receptor gene are linked to longevity in a Japanese cohort
-Low insulin/IGF-1 signaling could be triggered by a low glycaemic-index diet
Every other day fasting
-AMP kinase is a nutrient and energy sensor that activates catabolic pathways and represses anabolic pathways when the cell's AMP/ATP ratio rises
-AMP kinase seems to act directly on DAF-16/FOXO (a transcription factor) to phosphorylate & activate it.
-Overexpressing AMP kinase extends lifespan in C. elegans worm.
-The lifespan extension triggered when food limitation is initiated in middle age requires AMP kinase, which then acts directly on DAF-16/FOXO to phosphorylate/activate it.
-The anti-diabetic drug metformin, which activates AMP kinase, can extend lifespan in mice.
-AMP kinase can also extend lifespan in response to dietary restriction. Thus, not only how much you eat, but when you eat, may influence which lifespan-extending pathways are activated
Dietary Restriction in Middle Age
the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby less than a year old; also know crib death because the infants often die in their cribs.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
what is the activation synthesis theory of dreaming?
The frontal lobes strive to make sense of these random internal sensations= dreams
sleep 16-17 hours a day, by 4 moths the pattern is similar to adults, REM sleep occurs more
sleep patterns in infants
11-13 hours, inadequate= attention problems and depression
sleep pattens in children
stay up later, sleep in longer
sleep patterns in adolescents
wakeful periods interrupt sleep more often, go to bed earlier, wake earlier, ½ have insomnia
sleep patterns in adulthood
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