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Sociology chapter 3
Terms in this set (55)
refers to systematic inequalities
between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships
argued that private property creates social inequality and that this inequality ultimately leads to social conflict.
Equality of opportunity
Inequality is acceptable so long as everyone has the same opportunities for advancement and is judged by the same standards.
Equality of condition
idea that everyone should have an equal starting point from which to pursue his or her goals.
Equality of outcome
Everyone in a society should end up with the same "rewards" regardless of starting point, opportunities, or contributions.
a politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility
is a system of stratification based on hereditary notions of religious purity - no social mobility.
money received by a person for work, from transfers, or from returns on investments
a family or individual's net worth
is an economically based system of stratification - loose social mobility - based on roles in the production process rather than individual characteristics.
who felt that society was divided strictly into two classes — the proletariat, or working class, and the bourgeoisie, or employing class
The status hierarchy system
is a system of stratification based on social prestige.
refers to an individual's position in a stratified social order.
The extent that we are able to change our own social class within our lifetimes so that it is different from our parents'
three factors of this are
the movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society, can be either horizontal or vertical and can take place on the individual or group level.
equality of opportunity
Which of the following standards of equality was key to the arguments of civil rights leaders in the 1960s?
refers to the natural or biological differences that distinguish males and females.
is a social construct that consists of a set of social arrangements that are built around sex.
refers to desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior.
are sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as a male or female.
is an intellectual, consciousness-raising movement based on the idea that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect.
seeks to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life.
Gender-Structural Functionalist Approach
Assumes that gender differences exist to fulfill necessary functions in society
Doesn't allow for the possibility that other structures could fulfill the same function or for the fact that structures change throughout history
Gender- Conflict theories
argue that male capitalists benefit through systems that subordinate women.
argue that all social relations, including relations between workers and the owners of the means of production, stem from unequal gender relations.
argue that gender is a process that people participate in with every social interaction they have.
gender doesn't function in a vacuum
Some women are more privileged than other women - also more privileged than some men.
womanism is to feminism as
purple is to lavender"
- Alice Walker (1996)
nature and nurture
Gender studies can be said to focus on the relationship between _______
. _______ is a nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity.
perceived "biological" distinction
both are social constructions
neither have basis in empirical fact
a socially defined category, based on perceived biological differences between groups of people
18th century - physical attributes become determining factors in "race"
a socially defined category based on common language, religion, nationality, history, or another cultural factor.
Notion that some gps evolved more than others and were better fit to survive and rule other gps.
basis was that certain genetic traits could be bred into or out of a population
that postulates that controlling fertility of populations could influence inheritable traits passed on from generation to generation
Biraciality and Multiraciality
every human group has mixed ancestry
evolved from US laws forbidding miscegenation. Used to keep the white population pure
race and ethnicity
allocation of goods and services
legitimate social inequality
"pride and prejudice"
Identifiability (like labeling theory)
Solidarity and group awareness
whiteness as "standard"
light over dark within groups
How We Got White People
beliefs and attitudes
prejudgment social location
oversimplified and exaggerated generalizations
cultural "explanations" of difference have now replaced biological ones
people seem to believe stereotypes in light of the facts
prejudice systematically applied to groups
once race is superior
Color blind racism
most subtle and pervasive type
deeply embedded in social institutions
Housing, Employment, Health care, Media
Fair Housing Act of 1968
Made it illegal to discriminate in housing market
But subtle discrimination persists, and is difficult to "catch"
"Separate but equal" (1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson)
Apartheid: South Africa
1954 Brown vs. Board of Education
Even with laws, however, segregation and its negative consequences still persist
Frustrated when goals are not met
Aggression towards scapegoat
divide and conquer"
Intersection of race and gender, sexual orientation, social class, religion, age, and ability status
matrix of domination
Interlocking system of control. Each type of inequality reinforces others
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