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Arts and Humanities
gov chpt 12
Terms in this set (59)
two potential limits to the freedom of privately owned newspapers and broadcast stations.
1)they must make a profit. (the need for profit will lead media outlets to distort the news in order to satisfy advertisers or to build an audience. )
2)media bias.( If most of the reporters and editors have similar views about politics and if they act on those views, then the media will give us only one side of many stories. )
Newspapers created, sponsored, and controlled by political parties to further their interests. This form of press existed in the early years of the American republic. Circulation was chiefly among political and commercial elites.
In the early years of the Republic, politicians of various factions and parties created, sponsored, and con-trolled newspapers why?
to further their interests.
why could politicians of various factions and parties create, sponsor, and control newspapers ?
because circulation was of necessity small (newspapers could not easily be distributed to large audiences, owing to poor transportation)
-and news-papers were expensive (the type was set by hand and the presses printed copies slowly). -Furthermore, there were few large advertisers to pay the bills. These newspapers circulated chiefly among the political and commercial elites, who could afford the high subscription prices.
where did subsidies for newspaper come from in it's early years?
That money frequently came from the government or from a political party.
The development of the high-speed rotary press enabled publishers to print thousands of copies of a newspaper cheaply and quickly.
Self-supporting daily newspapers aimed at a mass readership.
telegraph affect on news
meant that news from Wash-ington could be flashed almost immediately to New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston, thus pro-viding local papers with access to information that once only the Washington papers enjoyed
the Associated Press allowed
telegraphic dissemination of information to newspaper editors on a systematic basis.
y couldnt the associated press be partisan or biased?
Since the AP provided stories that had to be brief and that went to newspapers of every political hue,
- to attract as many subscribers as possible, it had to present the facts objectively.
advantage of electronic journalism for politicians
A broadcast (like on radio) permits public officials to speak directly to audiences without their remarks being filtered through editors and reporters.
disadvantage of electronic journalism for politicians
people could easily ignore a speech broadcast on a radio or television station, either by not listening at all or by tuning to a different station.
-it is also expensive and each news segment must be quite brief to avoid boring the audience
to obtain the advantages of electronic media coverage, public officials must
do something sufficiently bold or colorful to gain free access to radio and television news—or they must find the money to purchase radio and television time.
A radio or video clip of someone (such as a presidential contender ) speaking.
the internet has affected politics by making it easier to ? (6)
1) raise $ in small donations
2) organize ppl to attend meetings
3)take instant, tho probably unreliable, opinion polls
4)disseminate instant criticism of your opponent
5)metabolize local followers
6)target campaigners w the names of ppl they should contact
wat has happened to newsppr competition in radio and TV
There has been a large decline in the numbers of daily newspapers that serve large communities.
-And newspaper circulation has fallen in recent years, with more and more people getting their news from radio and television.
joint operating agreement
when large cities have more than one paper
-Supposedly a JOA allows the business side to merge while preserving editorial independence, but sometimes that independence is not very large.
how does the national media act as a gatekeeper?
As gatekeeper it can influence what sub-jects become national political issues and for how long.
how does the national media act as a scorekeeper?
As scorekeepers the national media keep track of and help make political reputations, note who is being "mentioned" as a presidential candidate, and help decide who is winning and losing in Washington politics.
how does the national media act as a watchdog?
Once the scorekeepers decide that you are the person to watch, they adopt their watchdog role-closely scrutinizing politicians
-The media has an instinctive—and profitable—desire to investigate personalities and expose scandals.
which media outlets are almost entirely free from government regulation?
least competitive media outlets—the big-city newspapers—
which media outlets must have a gov. license to operate and must adhere to gov. regs?
the most competitive ones—radio and television stations—
how is the media (such as newspapers and magazines) protected by the 1st amendment?
newspapers and magazines need no license to publish, their freedom to publish may not be restrained in advance, and they are liable for punishment for what they do publish only under certain highly restricted circumstances.
explain the relation of the first amendment and prior restraint
The First Amendment to the Constitution has been interpreted as meaning that no government, federal or state, can place "prior restraints" (that is, censorship) on the press except under very narrowly defined circumstances.
why aren't the restriction on newspapers serious? (a newspaper or magazine may be sued or prosecuted if if the material is libelous or obscene or if it incites someone to commit an illegal act.)
because the courts have defined libelous, obscene,and incitement so narrowly as to make it more difficult here than in any other nation to find the press guilty of such conduct
Once something is published, a newspaper or mag-azine may be sued or prosecuted if
if the material is libelous or obscene or if it incites someone to commit an illegal act.
for a paper to be found guilty of libeling a public official or other prominent person, the person must show that
what was printed was wrong and damaging but must also show, with "clear and convincing evidence," that it was printed maliciously—that is, with "reckless disregard" for its truth or falsity
Confidentiality of sources
courts must decide in each case whether the need of a journalist to protect confidential sources does or does not outweigh the interest of the government in gath-ering evidence in a criminal investigation.
what has the sup court ruled abt confidentiality of sources
the Supreme Court has upheld the right of the government to compel reporters to divulge information as part of a properly conducted criminal investigation, if it bears on the commission of a crime.
can reporters claim confidentiality of sources
there is no federal shield that will protect journalists from persecution tho the law exists in 34 states
what case involving confidentiality of sources did congress pass a law forbidding
In another case the Supreme Court upheld the right of the police to search newspaper offices, so long as they have a warrant. But Congress then passed a law forbidding such searches (except in special cases), requiring instead that the police subpoena the desired documents.
radio/television broadcasting regulastions
No one may operate a radio or television station without a license from the Federal Communications Commission, renewable every seven years for radio and every five for television stations.
Of late a movement has arisen to deregulate broad-casting, on the grounds tha
that so many stations are now on the air that competition should be allowed to determine how each station defines and serves community needs.
which media broadcasting has been deregulated the most?
how has radio broadcasting been deregulated
Before 1992 one company could own one AM and one FM station in each market. In 1992 this number was doubled. And in 1996 the Telecommunications Act allowed one company to own as many as eight stations in large markets (five in smaller ones) and as many as it wished nationally.
result of radio deregulation
1) a few large companies now own most of the bigmarket radio stations.
2) the looser editorial restrictions that accompanied deregulation mean that a greater variety of opinions and shows can be found on radio. There are many more radio talk shows than would have been heard when content was more tightly controlled.
required broadcasters that air one side of a story to give time to opposing points of view. But there are now so many radio and television stations that the FCC relies on competition to manage differences of opinion.
The abandonment of the Fairness Doctrine permitted
the rise of controversial talk radio shows. The FCC decided that competition among news outlets protected people by giving them many different sources of news.
equal time rule
FCC rule that obliges stations that sell advertising time to one political candidate to sell equal time to that person's opponents.
• New York Times v. Sullivan (1964): ruling
Public offi-cials may not win a libel suit unless they can prove that the statement was made knowing it to be false or with reckless disregard of its truth.
Near v. Minnesota (1931): ruling
Freedom of the press applies to state governments, so that they cannot impose prior restraint on news-papers.
• Miami Herald v. Tornillo (1974): ruling
A newspaper cannot be required to give someone a right to reply to one of its stories
horse race journalism
news coverage on a campaign that focuses on guesses about who is ahead rather than a candidates position on issues
why are conservative talk shows more common than liberal ones
1) there are more self-described conservatives than liberals in this country.
2) conservative listeners do not think their views are reflected in what big-city newspapers, the major television networks, and the leading news magazines display. Liberals, by contrast, think their views are encouraged by newspapers and television stations.
3) much of the liberal audience is broken up into distinctive racial and ethnic groups that have their own radio outlets. Many Hispanics listen to stations that broadcast in Spanish; many African Americans prefer stations that have black hosts and focus on black community issues.
cover major political events that will be covered by many reporters and that involve relatively simple matters.
cover events that, though public, a reporter has to seek out because they are not routinely covered by the press. The reporter has to find the story and persuade an editor to publish it.
cover things that are often secret. Investigative reporters are often credited with uncovering these stories, though it is often the case that some government insider leaked the story to the press. Which leak a reporter picks up on may be influenced by the reporter's view as to what is important to him or her.
Information leaked to the media to test public reaction to a possible policy.
Words that imply a value judgment, used to persuade a reader without having made a serious argument.
Paying attention only to those news stories with which one already agrees.
-It means that people remember or believe only what they want to. If they see or hear statements that are inconsistent with their existing beliefs, they will tune out these messages
why are there so many government leaks
The answer is found in the Constitution. Because we have separate institutions that must share power, each branch of government competes with the others to get power. One way to compete is to try to use the press to advance your pet projects and to make the other side look bad.
why are There far fewer leaks in other democratic nations in comparison to the US
because power is centralized in the hands of a prime minister, who does not need to leak in order to get the upper hand over the legislature, and because the legislature has too little information to be a good source of leaks.
The tendency of the press (at least at the national level) to be suspicious of officials and eager to reveal unflattering stories about them that will win for its author honor, prestige, and (in some cases) a lot of money.
occurs bc of the public inc cynicism abt the media
what is meant by sensationalism in the media
To attract any audience at all, each pro-gram has a big incentive to rely on sensational news stories—sex, violence, and intrigue. Reinforcing this desire to go with sensationalism is the fact that covering such stories is cheaper than investigating foreign policy or analyzing the tax code
4 ways a reporter can quote an official by name
-On the record:
-Off the record:
-On deep background
what does on the record mean
The reporter can quote the official by name. •
what does off the record mean
What the official says cannot be used.
what does on background mean
What the official says can be used but may not be attributed to him or her by name. Reporters often call these anonymous source "a high-ranking official" or "a knowledgeable member of Congress."
what does On deep background mean
What the official says can be used but not attributed to anybody, even an anonymous source.
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