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51 terms

Hepatitis A, B, C

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(viral hepatitis is the) most common cause of ____
liver cancer
most common types of viral infxn
A B C
Incubation period of Hepatitis A in days.
15 to 50 days (average: 28 days)
transmitted via
blood, semen, vaginal fluids, wound exudates
most highest viral concentration in
blood
State the route of transmission for Hepatitis A
*ingestion of fecal matter
# new infxns Hep B in US
~38,000
rates highest amongst which age group
25-44
rates have dropped ___ since 1991 when when routine vaccination of children was first recommended
80%
# people in US w/ chronic Hep B
800k - 1.4M
globally?
350 M
global mortality annually
620k
are the following risky?: Sex with an infected partner
Y
Contact with open sores of an infected person
Y
any of these: food or water, sharing eating utensils, breastfeeding, hugging, kissing, hand holding, coughing, or sneezing.
N
Birth to an infected mother
Y
Needle sticks or sharp instrument exposures
Y
Sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person
Y
sharing needles
Y
How long does HBV survive outside the body?
7 days
What should be used to remove HBV from environmental surfaces?
1:10 household bleach to water
Risk factor?: residents and staff of facilities for developmentally disabled persons
Y
HBV infxn: who is typically asymptomatic
children <5yo
immunosuppressed adults newly infected
who has initial Sx?
30-50% of people >= 5yo
Example of possible transmission of Hepatitis B.
*sharing personal items: razors, needles
*sexual contact
*birth to an infected mother
Sx last how long?
usually several weeks, but up to 6 mo
HBV disease is more severe amongst ____
adults > 60 yo
acute infxn Tx?
no available meds, supportive only
chronic infxn Tx?
several antivirals
Hepatitis B
causes an infection of the liver.The virus spreads through exchange of blood or other body fluids, symptoms cause a flu-like illness with loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, rashes, joint pain, and jaundice. The virus stays in the liver of some people for the rest of their lives and can result in severe liver diseases, including fatal cancer.
Routes of transmission for hepatitis C.
contact with blood of an infected person.
who should NOT be vaccinated?
Anyone w/ serious allergic reaction to a prior HBV vaccine, a component of HBV vaccine, or yeast
if interrupted, does the vaccine series need to be restarted?
NO!
If the vaccine series was interrupted after the first dose, the second dose should be administered ____
ASAP
The second and third doses should be separated by an interval of at least ____
8 wks
Give acute symptoms of acute infection.
1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nausea
5. Vomiting
6. Abdominal pain
7. Gray-colored bowel movements
8. Joint pain
9. jaundice
Route of transmission for hepatitis B
contact with infectious blood, semen, other body fluids.
Can Hepatitis B vaccine be administered concurrently with other vaccines?
Y
How long does protection from Hepatitis B vaccine last?
20 yrs amongst healthy adults vaccinated >6mo (those at birth still under study)
Can Hepatitis B vaccine be given during pregnancy or lactation?
Yes. Hepatitis B vaccine contains no live virus, so neither pregnancy nor lactation should be considered a contraindication to vaccination of women
Are booster doses of Hepatitis B vaccine recommended?
not typically, only when:
1) hemodialysis patients (annually)
2) immunocompromised persons

For persons with normal immune status who have been vaccinated, booster doses are not recommended
APIs less than __% of US population but account for __% of chronic Hep B cases.
5%, 50%
Nearly __% of APIs living the US were born, or have parents who were born, in countries where Hepatitis B is common
70%
Most APIs with Hepatitis B were infected as ____
infants or young children
Approximately 1 in __ APIs are living with chronic Hepatitis B, but most do not know it
12
Hepatitis B-related liver cancer incidence is highest among APIs. It is a leading cause of ____ deaths in this population
cancer
State which hepatitis virus has available vaccination?
Hepatitis A - 2 doses given 6 month apart
Hepatitis B - 3 doses given over 6-month period (most common schedule)
during vaccination, we are exposing the pt's immune system to HBV ____ ____
surface antigen
Which hepatitis has the least potential for chronic infection (A, B, C)?
Hepatitis A
Incubation period of Hepatitis B in days.
45 to 160 days (average: 120 days)
Incubation period of Hepatitis C in days.
14 to 180 days (average: 45 days)