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AP Huge Chapter 13
Terms in this set (93)
Central Business District, downtown in common terms
Characteristics of a typical CBD
focal point of transportation, oldest district in a city, situated along a body of water, easiest part to reach
Amount of people needed to support a service
Example of high threshold business
Distance people are willing to travel for a business
Example of a high range business
Specialty retailers, sports stadium
Why are shops with high ranges and thresholds decreasing in the CBD?
People are moving to the suburbs and so are companies
3 examples of stores in the CBD that provide to businesses?
Office supplies, computers, dry-cleaning, photocopying
High rents and land shortage discourage _____ and ____ in the CBD?
industrial and residential activities
Whats happening to the old manufacturing districts in American CBDs?
They are changing from industry to commercial and retail in old port cities
Push factors of a CBD
high rents, dirt, crime, congestion, poverty
What is pulling people from the CBD to suburban areas?
Larger homes with private yards and more modern schools
Created to maximize land space in CBDs, garages, loading docks, pipes, cables
an area in a developed country where health food is difficult to obtains
How is the underground used in cities
TV/Cable wires, water/sewer pipes
Where do retail services locate in a skyscraper?
Street levels to entice customers
Where do business services locate in a skyscraper?
middle levels for lower rents
Where do apartments locate in skyscrapers?
Top for minimal noise and pretty views
Who came up with the concentric zone model and when?
E.W. Burgess in 1923
What does the Concentric Zone Model say?
A city grows outward from a central area in rings
What are the 5 rings in the concentric zone model?
Starting from the middle; CBD, Transition(industry and poor quality housing), Working class homes(older homes with working class families), Better residences, commuter's zone
Who came up with the Sector Model and when?
Homer Hoytt in 1939
What does the Sector Model say?
A city develops in sectors, not rings. Certain areas are better for certain activities and as a city grows the sectors expand outward
What are the 5 sectors in the sector model?
CBD in center, Transportation/Industry(Top left and bottom left), Low class residential(Top and bottom), middle class residential(Left side except center), high class residential(Middle left)
Who came up with the multiple nuclei model and when?
C.D. Harris in 1945
What does the multiple nuclei model say?
A city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve
What are the 9 nodes/areas in the multiple nuclei model?
CBD, Wholesale/light manufacturing, low class, middle class, high class, heavy manufacturing, outlying business district, residential suburb, industrial suburb
COntain about 5000 residents and correspond to neighborhoods when possible
3 types of data reported by the US Census Bureau
Number on nonwhites, median income of all families, percentage of adults that finished high school
Social Area Analysis
When social scientists compare the distribution of characteristics and create a picture of where various types of people would prefer to live
What are advantages of living near the CBD?
Proximity to regions best shops, restaurants, cafes, and cultural activities
Where do the poor live in Europe?
3 points about European suburbs
Long commutes to work, poor quality schools and shops, centers for crime and violence
How do European CBDs differ from American ones?
More consumer services, more rich people living there, motor vehicles are banned, low rise structures, narrow streets
Who created the Latin American city model?
Ernest Griffin and Larry Ford
What did the Latin American City Model show?
In Latin American cities, wealthy people push out from the center in a well defined elite residential sector, they're attracted to the CBD and spine because of better services
Elite Spine Sector of the Latin American City model
most intensive land use and highest values of land
What causes squatter settlements?
Housing shortage in cities for the poor immigrants
Settlements in developing countries with few services
What are services in a squatter settlement like?
few services, schools, paved roads, telephones, sewers
First stage of a squatter settlement
little more than camping on the street and taking cover in nearby buildings during storms
2nd stage of a squatter settlement
Primitive shelters are built with cardboard, wood, cans
3rd stage of a squatter settlement
Tin roof may be built after a few years to give it a more permanent look
What countries have cities that represent European cities?
Africa, Asia, Latin America
Why do Asian, African, and Latin American cities represent European cities
Because of colonization
Elements of an urban area according to the Peripheral Model
inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a BELTWAY OR RING ROAD
What problems do Peripheral areas lack?
Physical, social, and economic problems of inner city neighborhoods
What problems to Peripheral areas have>
Sprawl and segregation
an urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent self governing unit
3 basic characteristics of a city
locally elected officials, ability to raise taxes, responsibility for providing essential services
Urban area with a population of at least 50,000, county within the city its located, adjacent counties with a high population and a large percentage of people working in the city
What is the functional area of a city
an urban area with at least 50,000 inhabitants
What does the MSA include
"Great City"- a stretch of large cities that seem like one large city
Where is the biggest example of a megalopolis
Boswash Corridor, Boston to DC
What is a council of government?
A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of the various local governments in the region
Process of legally adding land to a city
In the past why did peripheral areas want annexation?
The city offered better services
Why do peripheral areas no longer want annexation?
Residents would rather organize their own services than pay the taxes
Density Gradient of an urban area
As distance from the center increases, the number of houses per area of land diminishes
How has the density gradient changed in recent years?
Fewer people living in the center, fewer differences in density within urban areas
progressive spread of development over the landscape
Why don't peripheries in Europe look like swiss cheese?
Officials dictate mandatory open space
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve land
Maryland Smart Growth laws
state doesn't fund highways and other projects that would extend urban sprawl and hurt farmland
Oregon and Tennessee Smart Growth laws
they defined growth boundaries within which new development must occurr
What 2 ways are suburban areas segregated?
Social classes and land uses
Encourages spatial separation abd orevents mixing of land uses within the same district
Strongest criticism of US Suburbs
low income people and minorities can't live there because high housing costs and unfriendliness of established residemts
Large node of business and consumer services in the suburbs
Suburbanization of consumer services
Downtown sales are decreasing, retailing has moved to suburban malls
Suburbanization of business services and factories
no traffic to/from work, low status workers need cars to get there, more land space for cheaper costs
How does the US government encourage car use
paying costs of limited access high speed highways, decreasing cost of gas
4 ways demand for congested roads is being reduced
congestion charges, tolls, permits, bans
Rush hour, what % of traffic does it account for?
Four 15 min periods with heaviest traffic-40%
Were replaced by buses because buses don't require tracks
Replaced trolleys, don't need tracks, declined
Best alternative, increasing because of funds from federal government
How is public transportation better than cars?
better suited for more people, cheaper, less pollution, more energy efficient
Briefly explain ways cars may become more energy efficient in the future
diesel engines, hybrids, full electric, plug in electric
What type of people live in the inner cities in the US?
Low income, less wealthy people
What type of people live in inner cities in Europe?
What is the major problem faced by inner city residents in the US?
poor housing conditions
Large houses built by wealthy families in the 19th century are subdivided by absentee landlords into smaller dwellings for low income families
What is the result of filtering?
Thousands of vacant houses are left in the CBD because landlords have abandoned them
drawing lines on a map to show areas where they will refuse to give loans
Whats the result of redlining
families trying to renovate the houses can't get loans
Who builds and maintains public housing
The federal government and a housing authority
Why is high rise public housing bad?
Frequently broken elevators, high drug and crime rates, juveniles terrorize other people in the hallways
process by which middle class people move into deteriorated inner city neighborhoods and renovate the housing
Why has gentrification been criticized?
They're subsidies for the middle class at the expense of people in the lower class
Social problems of the underclass
unemployment, illiteracy, alcoholism, drug addiction, crime, juvenile delinquency
What crisis is created by the high amounts of lower class residents in inner cities?
Growing gap between the need for services and the availability of funds to pay for them
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