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Ch 12 Pharm
Terms in this set (61)
What is true about current medications for Alzheimer's disease?
result in only minor improvements
What is among the early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?
An inability to remember or recall information
What is multiple sclerosis (MS)?
an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in which antibodies target & slowly destroy unmyelinated tissues in the brain & spinal cord
What are Interferon beta-1a (Avonex, Rebif) & interferon beta-1b (Betaseron) used as treatments for?
they are the only clinically proven treatments for affecting the underlying course of multiple sclerosis & for decreasing overall relapse rate.
What is the goal of drug therapy for spasticity?
to improve the patient's mobility
What does botulinum toxin do if given in high doses?
acts as a poison
What symptoms are common in patients with severe hypocalcemia?
convulsions or muscle spasms
What may a patient with Parkinson's disease experience difficulty doing?
urinating & performing sexually, which are signs of disturbances of the autonomic nervous system.
What does drug therapy for Parkinson's disease focus on?
restoring dopamine function & blocking the effect of acetylcholine within the same area of the brain.
What is Alzheimer's disease?
a degenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss, confusion, & an inability to think or communicate effectively.
What are the most common causes of dementia?
Alzheimer's disease & multiple strokes
What do patients with Alzheimer's disease experience?
a dramatic loss of their ability to perform tasks that require acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter
What is link is a possibility of Parkinson's disease?
a genetic link because many patients have a family history of the disorder
What medications may induce a Parkinson-like syndrome?
extensive treatment with antipsychotic medications (may cause extrapyramidal symptoms)
What do side effects of drugs used to treat parkinsonism include?
hypotension & tachycardia. Signs of toxicity include muscle twitching & mood changes
What is the goal of pharmacotherapy when treating Alzheimer's disease?
to improve the function in three domains: cognitive, behavioral, & daily activities
What can be used only in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, and why?
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors because they are effective only in the presence of functioning neurons
What are muscle spasms?
involuntary contractions of a muscle or group of muscles
What does pharmacotherapy for muscle spasm usually include?
analgesics, anti-inflammatory agent, & antispasmodic drugs
What is spasticity?
a muscle condition that results from damage to the CNS
What is dystonia?
a chronic neurological disorder in which involuntary muscle contraction forces body parts into abnormal postures
What is tetany?
prolonged muscle spasms
What characteristic does Levodopa have?
drug of choice for parkinsonism
What characteristic does Sinemet have?
Carbidopa that is added to levodopa to make more levodopa available to enter the CNS
What characteristic does Selegiline have?
Inhibits enzymes that destroy levodopa or dopamine
What characteristic does Bromocriptine have?
Dopamine agent that activates dopamine receptors
What characteristic does Amantadine have?
antiviral that releases dopamine from its nerve terminals
What characteristic does Tacrine have?
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for Alzheimer's disease associated with hepatotoxicity
What characteristic does Ginkgo Biloba have?
Approved in Europe for dementia but not yet in the United States; can react with anticoagulants
What characteristic does Donepezil have?
Antioxidant possibly useful in Alzheimer's disease
What characteristic does Pyridoxine have?
decreases the effect of dopaminergics
Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of the nervous system caused by the death of neurons that produce:
If the patient is in the early stages of Parkinson's disease, what would be seen on assessment?
tremor, muscle rigidity & weakness, & bradykinesia (NOT usually seen: dementia)
What is the relationship between acetylcholine & dopamine in the area of the brain that affects balance, posture, & involuntary muscle movement?
Dopamine inhibits & acetylcholine stimulates this region
What class of drugs may induce artificial parkinsonism by interfering with the same neural pathway & functions modified by a lack of dopamine?
What drug has been prescribed more extensively than any other drug for patients with Parkinson's disease?
What type of side effects would be expected when a patient is started on levodopa for Parkinson's disease?
sleep disorders such as insomnia
What class of drugs would likely be prescribed if a patient is unable to tolerate dopaminergic medications?
What normally causes vascular dementia?
Amyloid plaques & neurofibrillary tangles within the brain are diagnostic signs of what?
Acetylcholine inhibitors enhance the action of what chemical in the brain?
Drugs that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AchE):
increase levels of acetylcholine
What do causes of muscle spasms include?
Overmedication with antipsychotic drugs, hypocalcemia, epilepsy (does NOT include: overdose of calcium)
What are nonpharmacological measures that may be used to treat muscle spasms?
thermotherapy, hydrotherapy, ultrasound (NOT used: use of affected muscle)
What statement about cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril) is false?
It is effective in cerebral palsy
(TRUE: its mechanism of action is similar to that of tricyclic antidepressants; it is meant for short-term use; it is not recommended for use in children)
What drugs are effective in the treatment of spasticity?
Balcofen, Diazepam, Dantrolene (NOT effective: cyclobenzaprine)
How does botulinum toxin (Botox, Myobloc) produce its effects?
it blocks the release of acetylcholine from cholinergic nerve terminals.
What statement is incorrect about a centrally acting antispasmodic drug?
If you have severe side effects, stop taking the drug at once. (CORRECT: you should avoid hazardous activities, such as driving, if the drug makes you drowsy. You should avoid alcohol & antihistamines. You should not take this drug if you have liver disease. )
What are some correct statements regarding dantrolene (Dantrium)?
It is useful in spasms of head & neck muscles.
It is useful in cases of spinal cord injury or CVA.
It does not affect cardiac or smooth muscle.
(NOT correct: Its use is contraindicated in patients with malignant hyperthermia)
What best describes the etiology of tetany?
blood calcium levels are too low, leading to cell membranes being extremely excitable.
What drug is produced by bacteria & is responsible for food poisoning in high quantities?
What drug class increases the risk for unfavorable reactions to antispasmodics?
What may patients experience who abruptly discontinue baclofen (Lioresal)?
Hallucinations, paranoia, & seizures
What precautions should a patient take if he is using cayenne (Capsicum annum) for his muscle spasms, in addition to his drug therapy?
Never apply to broken skin.
The patient taking levodopa must avoid foods high in:
What degenerative CNS disease is characterized by progressive dementia & involuntary muscle spasms?
What does drug therapy for the patient with Parkinson's disease focus on?
Restoring dopamine function & blocking acetylcholine within the brain.
The patient on haloperidol (Haldol) is experiencing tardive dyskinesia. What drug would the nurse anticipate being ordered?
What would the nurse assess for a patient with Alzheimer's disease that has been started on rivastigmine (Exelon)?
The patient taking gingko biloba must be assessed for use of what drug?
What symptoms should be reported for a patient with MS that is prescribed an interferon?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch 9 Pharm
Ch 10 Pharm
Ch 2 - Pharm
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