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117 terms

AP Government Term Review

117 important and challenging terms covered on the AP Government test including major supreme court cases
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Bill of Rights
aspect of Constitution that reflects popular, majoritarian democracy
Federalist papers
these papers, written by James Madison, discussed factions and their inevitability
Federalist #10
this document argued that factions were inevitable and harmless in a republic since a republic has checks and balances
Shenk vs. US
this supreme court case established the "clear and present danger" test and stated that freedom of speech could be limited if the act of speech was an immediate threat to the U.S. government (such as burning a draft card)
Gideon v. Wainwright
supreme court case; the selective incorporation of the 6th amendment (right to an attorney)
Marbury v. Madison
supreme court case that gave Supreme court power of judicial review (the Court can declare laws unconstitutional)
McCulloch v. Maryland
supreme court case that ruled that states can't tax the national government; significance: states that national law will always be supreme over state law; ties with elastic clause
due process
rights to life, liberty, and property as stated in the 14th amendment
Miranda v. Arizona
supreme court decision; Miranda rights must be read to subjects before interrogation
Roe v. Wade
supreme court decision; under the 9th amendment, states could not ban abortion in the first trimester
Griswold v. Connecticut
supreme court case that interpreted the 9th amendment as the 'right to privacy', incorporated the 9th amendment to the states and said that states could not ban the sale of contraception
Title 9
part of the Education Amendment Act; banned sex discrimination in public schools (sports, clubs, etc)
Baker v. Carr
supreme court decision that established principle of "one man, one vote"; Congressional redistricting may NOT exclude minorities and district must be contiguous and equal in population, not area (note: this only applies within one state; one district in Kansas doesn't have to have the same population as a district in California)
Brown v. Board of Education
supreme court decision that desegregated schools and overturned Plessy v. Ferguson
Mapp v. Ohio
supreme court decision; selective incorporation of 4th amendment
selective incorporation
parts of the Constitution are applied to the states (thus weakening state power) by the 14th amendment
bill of attainder
declares one guilty of a crime without a trial; illegal under the Constitution
habeas corpus
the right to have a trial/ to present a case in court; also states that a person cannot be held in prison without being accused of a crime
establishment clause
clause of the 1st amendment that creates the separation between church and state
free exercise
part of 1st amendment that states that one can exercise any religion freely
necessary and proper clause
clause that states that Congress can make all laws necessary to run the government efficiently; gives implied powers to Congress, also called the Elastic Clause
fiscal federalism
all levels of government work together to complete a project funded by the federal government
categorical grant
grant that is given to states for a specific purpose
block grant
grant that is given to states with fewer restrictions than a categorical grant
unfunded mandate
when the government orders a state to do something and does not give it funds to do it (state must use own funds)
elite theory
A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization. (single minority dominates politics)
pluralist theory
theory of government that many minorities and social classes are involved in politics
split-ticket voting
voting for two parties on one ballot; causes divided government, shows weakening of political party affiliation
referendum
voting on in-state issues
political efficacy
citizens' trust and faith in government and their belief that they can influence it
political socialization
how political values are passed to the next generation
PAC
raises campaign funds for favored candidates, branches off from SIG (abbreviation)
public monies
money from federal government used to match presidential campaigning
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
set limits on hard money and banned unregulated/soft money in campaign process
front loading
states move primaries and caucuses earlier so that votes will count; ex: Iowa caucus and New Hampshire primary
open primary
type of primary where registered voters can participate in either party's primary
closed primary
type of primary where only registered party members can vote
party machine
local party organization that uses patronage to create party loyalty (ex: Boss Tweed, Tammany Hall)
critical election
election in which groups of voters permanently shift traditional patterns of party loyalty
judicial activism
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect current conditions and values; loose constructionism, belief in "living Constitution"
judicial restraint
philosophy that supreme court judges should interpret the Constitution based on the original intent of the framers; strict constructionism
amicus curae
briefs submitted to the Supreme Court by SIGs to lobby/convince the court hearing a case to pass a certain decision
rule of four
rule that states that 4 justices must grant certiorari to hear a case in the Supreme Court
national supremacy clause
clause of Constitution that states that state laws cannot compete with national law- national laws will always overpower state laws
executive order
president's power to change government policy without Congress approval (though Congress must still grant funds for this policy)
executive agreement
president's power to make an agreement with another head of state without Congressional supervision/agreement
line item veto
vetoing only a part of a bill; illegal because it violates doctrine of separation of powers; used today by many state governors
fiscal policy
government's power to tax and spend
Federal Reserve Board
an independent regulatory agency; sets monetary policy by controlling money supply; adjusts interest rate
entitlement spending
mandatory spending; ex: social security
OMB
part of the president's executive office; recommends the federal budget to the president (abbreviation)
independent regulatory agencies
agencies in bureaucracy freer from presidential control because their members serve a fixed term
US v. Nixon
supreme court decision that stated that the president's power to executive privilege is not absolute
Freedom of Information Act
this act gave citizens access to information about the executive branch
War Powers Act
this act states that the president must withdraw troops within 90 days if Congress orders him to
Rules Committee
this House committee schedules hearings and sets the agenda
gerrymandering
redistricting to benefit a political party
franking privilege
incumbent congressmen can send free mail to constituents
lobbying
SIGs/organizations try to influence legislation or Court decisions by providing technical information or favors
subcommittee
studies details of proposed legislation
conference committee
resolves differences between the House and Senate versions of the bill at the end of the legislative process if a bill passes through the House and senate in different forms; mostly tends to favor the Senate version of a bill
cloture rule
ends a filibuster in the senate; debate can end after 100 hours; 60 senators must vote for cloture to occur
filibuster
a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
pocket veto
letting a bill expire at the end of a Congressional term
divided government
when one party has the majority in Congress and the president is of the other political party; causes legislation to pass slower
litigation
lobbying the courts; used when there is a lack of broad public support for a cause (easier to convince 5 justices rather than hundreds of representatives in Congress); ex: Brown v Board of Education, Roe v. Wade
attorney general
the person in charge of the justice department in the cabinet
political ideology
a consistent set of beliefs about who should rule and how
$2300
individual limit on contributions per candidate per election
incumbency status
this factor has the most influence on the outcome of a congressional election
executive privilege
The right of the president to withhold info from Congress/ refuse to testify; limited by U.S. v. Nixon
caucus
an organization of members of Congress who share similiar ideas and agendas (not always within the same political party)
hyperpluralism
when many interest groups try to get control, resulting in a government that is tied up in gridlock
democratic-republicans
during the Constitutional Convention, this group was led by Thomas Jefferson and was characterized as the party of the "common man". believed in a more limited role of central government.
federalists
during the Constitutional Convention, this group was headed by Alexander Hamilton, was made up of the country's upper class, and supported a strong national government
ex post facto laws
punishing someone for something that is now illegal but was legal when it was committed . Congress is prohibited from enacting this type of legislation. (ex: if Bob picked flowers from a forest preserve two months ago but the forest preserve only announced that picking flowers was illegal a month ago, Bob cannot be persectued for his 'crime')
full faith and credit clause
this Constitutional clause states that states and the national government must respect each other's laws, public records, and judicial decisions; aka "privileges and immunities clause"
libertarian
one who is conservative economically and socially liberal; tends to be young, college-educated, white, and non-religious; basically, believes that gov. should stay out of both economics and moral issues
10th amendment
this amendment gives states reserved powers not delegated to the national government
supremacy clause
this Constitutional clause states that "the Constitution, and the laws of the United States...shall be the supreme law of the land"
double jeopardy
legal concept where once a verdict is handed down, you cannot be tried again for the same crime
Gitlow v New York
landmark Supreme Court decision that incorporated the first amendment to the states in 1925
bully pulpit
the ability to use the office of the presidency to promote a particular program and/or to influence Congress to accept legislative proposals
rider
an amendment to a bill that sometimes has nothing to do with the intent of the bill itself and is considered to be pork barrel legislation (when legislators try to favor own home districts through legislation)
original jurisdiction
cases heard by the Supreme Court that do NOT come on appeal from lower courts
Article I
this article of the constitution deals with the legislative branch
Article II
this article of the constitution deals with the executive branch
Article III
this article of the constitution deals with the judiciary branch
delegates
type of politician;view themselves as the "mouthpiece" of their voters, and try to represent their constituency the best they can, for their voters wishes.
trustees
type of politician;view themselves as being "trusted" by the ppl, who voted them into office, and do as they think is best, for the benefit of their voters.
logrolling
An agreement by two or more lawmakers to support each other's bills or riders
partisan
A strong supporter of a party, cause or a person.
Senate
holds the impeachment trial
Freedom of Information Act
passed in 1966, gave citizens access to information about the executive branch
executive privilege
NOT a formal power, but all presidents claim the ability to shield themselves from revealing White House discussions, decision, or documents to legislature and judiciary; not absolute as ruled by US v. Nixon
legislative veto
refusal to adhere to an executive order or a federal agency standard by Congress; ruled unconstitutional, but is still occasionally used
House Appropriations Committee
committee in House of Representatives that reviews the budget for a bureaucratic agency annually; aka House Ways and Means Committee
linkeage institutions
connect people to the government; ex: political parties, special interest groups
527 organization
A tax-exempt group branching off from a PAC formed primarily to influence elections through voter mobilization efforts and issue ads that do not directly endorse or oppose a candidate. Unlike PACs, they are not subject to contribution limits and spending caps. This is a loophole; allows soft money to be legally donated to candidates in a campaign.
exclusionary rule
states that evidence found from an unreasonable search cannot be used in Court; set by Mapp v. Ohio; has some exceptions such as airport searches, objects in plain view, and searches in emergency situations
plea bargain
arrangement in which a suspect pleads guilty to a lesser offense in order to avoid a trial. The manner in which most cases are disposed of; applies to most cases, since most criminal cases do NOT get a trial
de jure
"by law"
interstate commerce clause
states that Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the states. The courts take a broad view of what constituted interstate commerce; an expressed (formal) power of Congress; has been used by Supreme Court to justify desegregation laws such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964
devolution
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states; trend since 1994 to reduce power of the federal government and give more to the states (ex: states got right to set speed limits, to regulate welfare reform)
civic duty
a belief that one has an obligation to participate in politics
whip
A senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking
state legislature
in charge of reapportionment and redistricting within a state after a census is taken
progressive tax
a tax for which the percentage of income paid in taxes increases as income increases; wealthier people pay more
reapportionment
reallocation of the number of representatives a state has in the House of Representatives; done every 10 years based on census
congressional committee
where bills start off in Congress; most work on bills, especially in House, occurs here; bills must pass out of these to be shown to the entire House or Senate and most bills die here
select committee
as opposed to a standing commitee, this type of committee is temporarily established for investigations or emergencies (ex: the Katrina hearing commitee after hurricane Katrina)
closed rule
in the House of Reps, sets a strict time limit on debate and forbids the introduction of any amendments from the floor
open rule
permits amendments from the floor in the House of Reps, however amendments must be germane (related to the purpose of the bill) and cannot be riders
grassroots lobbying
type of lobbying used when there is popular support for a cause but a lack of funds (ex: would be used by a special intrest group against animal cruelty)
writ of certiorari
An order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up a case for review
populist
liberal economically, conservative socially; typically religious, poorly educated, low-income, female; believe that government should be involved in both economics and moral issues
Voting Rights act
act passed in 1965, provides criminal penalties for interfering with the right to vote; clarifies 15th amendment to make poll taxes, literary tests, grandfather clauses, etc illegal