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Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement flashcards
Terms in this set (67)
1963 March on Washington
Organized by A. Philip Randolph in support of Civil Rights Legislation. 200,000 people gathered for it.
A. Philip Randolph
Prominent African-American Civil Rights leader in 20th century. Founded the March on Washington and the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
American political activist. Associated with the Black Panther Party.
American Civil Rights activist. Cheif organizer of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
Black Panthers/Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
Intended to protect African-American neighborhoods from police brutality.
Co-founded the Black Panthers with Huey P. Newton.
Booker T. Washington
American educator, author, and political leader. Spoke on behalf of Southern blacks and was sponsored by many powerful white people.
Brown vs. Board of Education
Court case that declared segregation in schools unconstitutional.
Carol Moseley Braun
Represented Illinois in the U.S. senate from 1993-1999. First and only African American woman elected to the U.S. Senate.
Dean of Howard University law school. Also the Litigation Director of the NAACP; fought against Jim Crow Laws.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Act outlawed major forms of racial and sexist discrimination. Intended to end unequal voting registration and school segregation.
Congress on Racial Equality/CORE
Organization that was founded in 1942 by James Farmer and George Houser. Worked for equality for everyone unaffected by a person's race, sex, or disabilities.
Civil Rights activist in the 30's. Worked with SNCC by organizing the first meeting at Shaw University.
Fannie Lou Hamer
American voting rights activist. Organized the MIssissippi Freedom Summer for SNCC.
Deputy chairman of the Black Panther Party, murdered by the FBI.
Social reformer, writer. Published a book recounting his life in slavery.
Started by CORE. Challenged the law of the desegregation of interstate bussing by traveling through the South.
Huey P. Newton
Co-founder of the Black Panthers with Bobby Seale.
Ida B. Wells
Huge anti-lynching activist in the U.S.
Candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1984 and 1988. He founded the Rainbow/PUSH organization.
Very influential leader for African-Americans. Posed the white world as harsh oppressors who committed many crimes against blacks.
Founded the UNIA-ACL. Tried to create the Black Star Line; used radical tactics to push racial pride.
Martin Luther King Jr.
African-American activist/Civil Rights leader. Used non-violent tactics inspired by Ghandi to convey his message.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Political/social protest. Started when Rosa Parks refused to move for a white man on a bus.
One of the oldest Civil Rights organizations in the U.S., founded in 1909. Fought for freedom of speech and criticism, manhood suffrage, etc.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Major Supreme Court decision that allowed the segregation of facilities as long as they were equal.
Her refusal to move for a white man on a bus started the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Spoke about her experiences as a woman in slavery. Delivered her famous "Ain't I A Woman?" speech at the Ohio Women's Rights Convention.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
First president was Martin Luther King Jr. Aimed at ending all forms of segregation in the U.S.
Leader of SNCC. Honorary prime minister of the Black Panthers. Advocated black power.
Principal organization in the 1960's. First started by a series of students along with Ella Baker at Shaw University.
American jurist; first African-American on the Supreme Court. Known for his argument in the Brown vs. Board Education case.
UNIA/Universal Negro Improvement Association
Black nationalist fraternal organization. Founded by Marcus Garvey.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Act outlawed discriminatory voting practices.
First African-American to graduate from Harvard. Only black founder of NAACP.
William Lloyd Garrison
American abolitionist. Editor of the Liberator; promoted immediate emancipation of slaves
The Young Lords Party
Organization based off the Black Panthers. Active during the 60's and 70's. Aimed to achieve their goal of equal education, rights, etc. violently.
AIM/American Indian Movement
Created in 1968. Started to fight police brutality against Indians. Now concentrated on education and fighting stereotypes about Native Americans.
Founded in 1970 by Margaret Kuhn. Aimed to work for social and economic justice and peace for all.
Disability Rights Movement
First began in 1960 with the National Association for Down Syndrome. Working towards the end of discrimination against those who are disabled using political action.
NGLTF/National Gay and Lesbian Task Force
Started in the 1970's, still alive today. Fighting for the acceptance and equal rights of the LGBT community.
Black artists emerging despite racial violence.
Jim Crow Laws
Southern states and local governments passed these laws in order to segregate blacks and whites in public and private facilities.
Literacy tests, poll taxes, and the grandfather clauses
Basic rights, privileges and protections which belong in principle to every citizen of the U.S.
1865, abolished slavery/involuntary servitude.
1868, all persons born in the U.S. are citizens
1870, prohibits denial of voting rights based on race or color
Ku Klux Klan
Founded by 6 Confederate veterans in Tennessee in 1866. Violent terrorist organization whose goals were to destroy Republican Party, throw out Reconstruction governments, and aid planter class in controlling laborers. Used fear, violence, brutality.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Gave African-Americans citizenship and forbade states from passing discriminatory laws.
Southern states adopted these laws restoring the restrictions of slavery. Prohibited blacks from carrying weapons, serving on juries, etc.
Churches, organizations, state governments helped African Americans form their own universities.
Blacks in reconstruction
Active role in political process, held office in local/state/federal governments, increase in education.
Landowners divide land and give workers seeds and tools. When crops harvested, half given to owners. After all debts paid, no money left, had to resort to sharecropping for another year.
Workers supply own tools and rent farmland for cash.
Amnesty Act of 1872
Returned power to Southern Democrats and expired the Freedman's Bureau.
The Great Depression
Black sharecroppers devastated. Whites take over black jobs and the New Deal doesn't support black-dominated work.
Shift to war economy enables more job offerings, still hiring discrimination for blacks.
Executive Order 8802
Order that FDR issues that bans hiring discrimination.
Double "V" Campaign
Victory in Europe and victory at home against racism.
Studied non-violence as a philosophy in India.
Student activist in Nashville, TN.
De Facto Segregation
Segregation that exists by practice and custom.
De Jure Segregation
Segregation that exists by law.
An organized voter registration drive led to brutal/violent attacks. MLK announced a 50 mile march to Montgomery, Alabama.
10 Point Plan
Black Panther's list of demands.
President Johnson appointed this study to find causes of urban violence.
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