Terms in this set (33)
What is conduction?
direct contact between two objects with thermal gradient
What is convection?
moving molecules, usually liquid or gas
As clinicians, what two factors can we control when changing the rate of heat transfer by conduction. (HINT: Rate of heat transfer by conduction is D= area*(T1 - T2) ; D=rate of heat loss, area = body surface area that is being cooled, k = is thermal conductivity of tissues and is a constant, T1 - T2 is the temperature gradient in Celsius)
We can control the area of exposure, and the temperature gradient
What is evaporation?
transfer of heat away from warm body when liquid on surface becomes a gas
What is radiation?
transfer of electromagnetic energy without a medium
What is the max depth of cooling?
What is the therapeutic temp range for a cryo modality?
What is the average skin temperature before cooling?
85 - 86 degrees F
What temp does the skin drop up to with application of cold through conduction?
80 deg F. Normal temp is 85 deg F
True or False there is a delayed response in deeper tissues for cold?
True or False muscle stops cooling after cold is removed?
False. Muscle continues to cool after cold is removed.
How long does the effect of cold last on the body?
depends on magnitude and depth. 30 min or up to hours if sedentary. superficial tissues re-warm faster than deep.
What physiological effect takes place after a drop of 2 deg F?
dec metabolic rate
What physiological effect takes place after a drop of 9 deg F?
dec mm spindle activity
What physiological effect takes place after a drop of 13 deg F?
dec nerve conduction velocity
What physiological effect does cold have on smooth mm?
causes vasoconstriction by increasing smooth mm contraction.
What effect does cold have on the GI tract?
inc peristalsis, inc gastric acid, inc gastric blood flow (digestion)
What does cold do to motor nerve excitability (not nerve conduction) with short duration cold?
By applying cryotherapy, a clinician can decrease the excitability of free nerve endings in the patients treatment area. How does this decrease pain?
decreasing the excitability of free nerve endings means that you are inreasing the threshold for stimulating nociceptors. In other words, it takes a greater stimulus to elicit pain.
What effect does cold have on mm strength?
dec strength while cold is on the muscle but increases strength hours after cold is removed
What effect does cold have on joint stiffness?
dec collagen elasticity
What are systemic effects of cold?
If circulating blood temp drops 0.2 deg F the hypothalamus causes
-dec respiratory rate
-inc mm tone
-inc blood pressure
Indications for cryotherapy
-limit secondary injury during acute inflammation
-limit edema during acute inflammation
precautions for cryotherapy?
-treating over superficial peripheral nerve
Contraindications for cryotherapy
-uncovered open wounds for 1st 2-3 wks.
-raynaud's syndrome: some crazy vascular response to cold/stress
-hypersensitivity to cold/cold alergy
-Cryoglobulinemia: serum proteins collect in small vessels and form a gel
-paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria: hemoglobin released from lysed RBCs and is excreted in urine
What is better a gel pack or an ice bag?
Ice bag. The ice bag stays colder longer and won't cause frost bite like a gel pack.
Positives and negatives to gel packs?
positives: inexpensive and molds around target area
negatives: high potential for frostbite, cannot cool as deep, requires layer between skin and pack.
positives and negatives for vapocoolant?
positives: used for trigger points. relaxes mm before stretching.
negatives: must reward skin to prevent frostbite.
positives and negatives for an ice bag?
positives: dry interface (best for post op wounds), maintains temp longer, inexpensive, easy to apply and recreate at home.
positives and negatives for ice towel?
positives: wet interface, good conduction.
negatives: more comfortable on skin if room temp or warm.
positives and negatives for ice cup?
positives: ideal for tendons and mm belly, low risk of frostbite and tissue damage.
negatives: covers small area, requires PT involvement during Tx.
positives and negatives to cold baths?
positive: used for distal extremities. lower temps=shorter tx time.
negatives: may have to use toe cap for comfort.
positives and negatives for cryocuff?
positives: cold reduces pain, compression reduces edema, compression and cold are more effective used together.
negatives: expensive, bulky.
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