AP GAPtastic Vocab Terms - Political Participation and Linkage Institutions (Unit Five)
Terms in this set (54)
Amicus curiae brief
"friend of the court" brief filed by an interest group to influence a Supreme Court decision.
contention that parties are less meaningful to voters, who have abandoned the parties in greater numbers to become independents.
government in which one party controls the presidency while another party controls the Congress (i.e. holds a majority of seats in the House and Senate).
Places where citizens and groups are able to connect with elected officials and/or bureaucrats to try and influence public policy
Determination of policy priorities
Determination of the number of seats each state will receive in the House of Representatives following the census
balancing the ticket
occurs when a presidential nominee chooses a vice president running mate who has different qualities in order to attract more votes for the ticket.
support from both parties for policy, e.g., a bipartisan foreign policy.
election to choose candidates that is open to independents, and that allows voters to choose candidates from all the parties.
an informal association of federal agency, congressional committee, and interest group that is said to have heavy influence over policy making.
the act or process of carrying out a lawsuit.
attempting to influence policy makers.
elections in which candidates are not identified by party membership on the ballot - typically local offices i.e. school board, city council, judge
Focused on the personal appeal of the individual candidate rather than the positions and philosophies embraced by the party with which the candidate is identified.
local party meeting to choose a candidate (an alternative to a primary election) OR a meeting of individuals who share a common characteristic, such as the Congressional Women's Caucus)
a staged campaign event that attracts favorable visual media coverage, e.g., a candidate reading to a group of school children.
the positive influence of a popular presidential candidate on the election of congressional candidates of the same party.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
an interest group that raises funds and donates to election campaigns.
appointing loyal party members to government positions.
the cycle in which a person alternatively works for the public sector and private sector, thus blurring the individual's sense of loyalty.
party election to choose candidates that is closed to independents. Voters may not cross party lines.
a group of individuals or smaller groups united in support of a common cause (even if they don't have any
other areas of agreement)
Committee leadership system
Theory that congressional committees are the primary drivers of policymaking within Congress (as opposed to the party leadership system)
election of an official directly by the people rather than by an intermediary group such as the Electoral College
an abandoned rule of the Democratic Party national convention in which the candidate with the most delegates from a state won all of the state's convention votes.
election in which the people choose candidates for office.
terms of office that have a definite length of time, e.g., two years for a member of the House.
scheduling presidential primary elections early (e.g., February or March) in an election year.
election in which the officeholders are chosen. Contrast with a primary election, in which only the candidates are chosen.
redrawing district lines to favor one party at the expense of the other.
campaign contributions donated directly to candidates.
an officeholder who is seeking reelection.
The assets available to elected officeholders that facilitate their chances of winning re-election (gerrymandering, franking, donation advantages, name recognition, etc.)
Issue advocacy ads
ads that focus on issues and do not explicitly encourage citizens to vote for a certain candidate.
an informal and loosely organized coalition of individuals and groups with a common interest who jointly advocate for and endeavor to implement preferred policy.
any entity that connects people to policymakers and enables them to communicate their preferences, such as political parties, interest groups, and the mass media
The general elections held halfway through a Presidential term, involving all of the House of Representatives seats and approximately one-third of Senate seats, as well as some state and local races.
The process of ensuring your supporters show up and vote on election day or take action to try to influence policy.
election to choose candidates that is open to independents, and in which voters may choose candidates from any one party.
strongly affiliate with a party
Party leadership system
Theory that political parties are the primary drivers of policymaking within Congress (as opposed to the committee leadership system)
a list of positions and programs that the party adopts at the national convention. Each position is called a plank.
more votes than anyone else, but less than half, e.g., Clinton won a plurality (43%) popular votes in 1992, but not a majority. Plurality elections such as those for Congress are won by the person with the most votes, regardless if he/she has a majority.
Realigning ("critical") election
an election in which there is a long term change in party alignment, e.g., 1932.
reallocations of House seats to the states on the basis of changes in state populations, as determined by the census.
redrawing of congressional district boundaries by the party in power of the state legislature.
an office that is extremely likely to be won by a particular candidate or political party.
Single member district system/Winner-Take-All voting district
system in which the people elect one representative per district. With a winner-take-all rule, this system strengthens the two major parties and weakens minor parties.
campaign contributions that are not donated directly to candidates, but are instead donated to parties.
Structural barriers to voting
Official laws and/or policies that diminish participation in elections, such as registration requirements, voter identification laws, and voting procedures and locations.
a delegate to the Democratic national convention who is there by virtue of holding an office.
a Tuesday in early March in which many presidential primaries, particularly in the South, are held.
a state that does not consistently vote either Democratic or Republican in presidential primaries.
information about the quantity and/or demography of voters who participated in a given election
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